Tuesday, December 23, 2008


Blacks being the original race once occupied virtually every corner of the globe. Britain was no exception. The Grimaldi African man is known to have occupied Europe in ancient times. Blacks have been living in Britain from prehistoric times to the present era.
Irish tradition tells of a giant-like race of Africans headed by a king with a retinue of priests called Fomorians. They were depicted as gloomy sea giants who brought their skills from Africa via Spain.
The original Celtic priesthood were Blacks. The White Druids had nothing to do with the construction of Stonehenge since it predated their emergence by several centuries.
The Roman historian, Tacitus, mentioned "the dark complexion and unusually curly hair" of the Silures, or Black Celts who he believed migrated there from Spain. When Julius Caesar invaded Britain he met these Blacks. Julius Caesar's army was itself composed of prominent Blacks. In fact Blacks have served as Roman emperors on a number of occasions.
The Scots are themselves of Black origin. Ireland was once known as Scotia Magna and Scotland was called Caledonia until about the third century A.D. when a tribe invaded Caledonia and the name was changed to Scotia. The Irish are said to have derived the name Scotia from the daughter of an Egyptian Pharaoh named Scota.
The construction of Stonehenge has been attributed to giants who sailed from Africa bringing their skills with them. The presence of giants may not necessarily be a figment of the imagination. Giants have been mentioned in the Bible. There was a Black Canaanite race called Anakim. When the Black Hebrews first saw them they realized how small they were themselves: "And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, which come of the giants: and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight.” (Numbers 13:33).
Anak was a Black giant, a descendant of Canaan, the youngest son of Ham. Ham is widely believed to be the ancestor of the Black race. There are other Black giants mentioned in the Bible. These are the Enim and Zamzummin, from which group Goliath and his brother emerged.
The Formorians are believed to be Carthaginian pirates and/or traders. Carthage was a Phoenician colony. Attempts have been made to classify them as Semites. They belonged to the Black race.
Phoenicia or Canaan was a Black civilization before the migration of Indo-Europeans. After the dispersal from the Tower of Babel, Canaan, Ham's youngest son, moved to Palestine which was then uninhabited. They called the land Canaan. The Canaanites were a very gifted people who built great cities such as Jericho. Canaan's first son, Sidon, became the father of the Sidonians or Phoenicians. When the Black Hebrews invaded their land most of the Canaanites fled Palestine to Africa.
Because of their seafaring prowess the Black Egyptians entrusted them with the responsibility of providing them with their materials. They sailed to Cyprus for copper, the Iberian Peninsula for silver, to the Americas before the birth of Columbus and as far as Britain for tin.
C.A. Diop in his work, The African Origin of Civilization made reference to the megaliths. He said, "These are found only in lands inhabited by Negroes or Negroids, or in places that they have frequented, the area that Speiser calls “the great megalithic civilization,” which extends from Africa to India, Australia, South America, Spain and Brittany. It is known that the menhirs and dolmens of Brittany date back to an epoch of an agricultural and copper civilization. Moreover, Spain and Brittany were stopovers for the Phoenicians, a Negroid group, en route to pick up tin from the British mines. That megalithic civilization in Brittany belongs to the second millennium, the period when the Phoenicians frequented those regions. This combination of facts should leave no doubt on the southern and Negro origin of the megaliths in Brittany."
The Phoenicians were also commissioned by the Egyptian King Necho II (Nekau II) to sail around Africa. This was 2100 years before Vasco da Gama attempted a similar feat when in 1497 and 1499 he sailed from Portugal to India and back again around the Cape of Good Hope.
According to Herodotus, “…the Egyptian King Neco... sent out a fleet manned by a Phoenician crew with orders to sail round and return to Egypt and the Mediterranean by the pillars of Heracles. The Phoenicians sailed from the Red Sea into the southern ocean... and after two full years rounded the Pillars of Heracles in the course of the third, and returned to Egypt.”
The Basques in Spain are considered to be a branch of the colony founded there by Black Africans. Their language is totally different from any in Spain and for that matter in Europe.
Blacks are also mentioned in Welsh folk-tales, such as in the story of Peredur in The Mabinogion. They are sometimes referred to in unflattering terms, as ugly, giants, misshapen and oppressors.
The original knights of Europe including the Knights of King Arthur's round table were Blacks. There was an African, Gormund who ruled Ireland at the time of the Anglo-Saxons. There were also Blacks among the Vikings. The first King to unite Norway was Black. He was known as Halfdan the Black. He was not called Black simply because of the color of his hair but because he was dark-skinned.
The Roman Emperor Septimius Severus who led a conquest of Britain was a full-blooded African, born in North Africa.
One of the Black Vikings was known as Thorhall, living at the time of Eric the Red. He was among the crew that took the Vikings to the shores of North America before the birth of Columbus. He has been described as “a large man, and strong, black and like a giant, silent and foul-mouthed in his speech, and always egged on Eric to the worst, he was a bad Christian.”
The Black Britons were sometimes referred to as “shameless Irish robbers,” and the word “Scot” came to be synonymous with “vagabond.”
On the origin of the word “Blackmail,” David MacRitchie tells us that, “the expression applied by the inhabitants of Wales to the tribute exacted from their prince, Meredith, by the Danish pirates [Black Danes] of the year 987 A.D., virtually signified “black-mail.” And, moreover, “the tribute of the blacke armie” precisely phrases the tax paid by Theodosius to Rugilas, King of the Huns, five centuries before. It was black-mail. That is the origin of the term. Dane-gelt was black-mail, equally with the tribute paid to the black Huns by the Romans."
However, Whites did not consider Blacks in Early Europe as being all evil and dangerous. David MacRitchie cites a writer in Ancient and Modern Britons, who claimed that, “in so far as I have been able to observe, the black race is superior to the fair in stature and strength...in respect to intellect, they are acute, accurate observers of natural phenomena, quick of apprehension and fluent in speech. In their moral character they are at least much superior to the population of most of the lowland parishes.”
The Scottish historian David MacRitchie, further tells us that Alpin, the father of Kenneth MacAlpin (Mac means son of) was half Scottish Black and half Pictish Black. Kenneth (the son) was the first to unite the two primary branches of Blacks in Scotland.
In the African Origin of Civilization by Cheikh Anta Diop, we are told that “The King of Ghana was called Maga,” and that the word could have originated as far back as the Third Century B.C. like the Sarakole language. In the second volume of Ancient and Modern Britons, were are presented with “Maga Dubh,” which in the Scottish language of the time meant “Black King.”
Two British writers, Gerald Massey and Godfrey Higgins believe that Blacks built Stonehenge. Gerald Massey (In Volume I of his work, A Book of the Beginnings claims that Stonehenge was built by a Black architect known s Morien. He says, “Now, as a Negro is still known as a MORIEN in English, may not this indicate that MORIEN belonged to the black race, the Kushite builders?”
Godfrey Higgins says in the first Volume of Anacalypsis, “In my Essay on The Celtic Druids, I have shewn, that a great nation called the Celtae, of whom the Druids were the priests, spread themselves almost over the whole earth, and are to be traced in their rude gigantic monuments from India to the extremity of Britain. Who these can have been but the early individuals of the black nation of whom we have been treating I know not, and in this opinion I am not singular. The learned Maurice says, "Cushites, i.e. Celts, built the great temples in India and Britain, and excavated the caves of the former." And the learned Mathematician, Ruben Burrow, has no hesitation in pronouncing Stonehenge to be a temple of the black, curly-headed Buddha."



Written by Dr. Kwame Opoku
Friday, 19 September 2008
Probably very few countries have been so systematically and intensively deprived of their cultural objects with tremendous violence by Western European countries as Ethiopia has been. First, the British under Queen Victoria sent an army in 1868 to conquer the African country under Emperor Tewodros. The Ethiopian ruler committed suicide in Magdala, the capital, with a gun given to him previously as a gift by Queen Victoria rather than let himself be captured and humiliated by the invading British Army. The barbarous behaviour of the invading army after conquer and loot has been described many times.
The list of objects stolen by the British, including processional crosses, imperial gold and silver crowns, historical and religious illustrated manuscripts and other objects from Ethiopia will fill pages. Ethiopia became Christian in the 4th Century, long before many in Europe had heard of Christianity.
The second military invasion and despoliation of Ethiopia was in 1936 by the Italians under the fascist leadership of Benito Mussolini who with his soldiers took, among other things, the obelisk at Axum, now returned. But there are still other objects such as works of art, archives, library of Haile Selassie, objects of religious and cultural significance, and the plane of the daughter of the Emperor held by the Italians from their occupation of the land of Emperor Haile Selassie.
Italy has returned the heavy obelisk and can be expected to return the various stolen crosses and manuscripts it still holds. If the recent impressive historic action of Italy paying compensation to Libya for colonization is any indication of its future policy, we can expect Italy to pay also compensation for the colonial occupation of Ethiopia. Furthermore, the return of the Venus of Cyrene to Tripoli should facilitate the return of stolen Ethiopian artifacts in Italy.
During all these historic gestures of compensation and reconciliation, including apologies for wrongful historical acts, we have not heard from the British that they have also understood the necessity for such gestures and restitution. There is no indication that Great Britain, which started the looting of African cultural objects with military force, has any intention of following the path opened by Italy. The British Museum has thousands of very precious Ethiopian manuscripts and objects. The Universities of Edinburgh, Cambridge, Oxford, Manchester and others all have their share of these stolen precious manuscripts and objects. The British Museum pretends to respect the religious objects such as the holy tabots. With all due respect to Neil MacGregor, respect for objects does not replace respect for the rights of ownership and the freedom of religion and religious practice. How long are the British going to refuse to do the right thing? How can Christians steal the crosses, Bibles and other religious objects that the Ethiopian Orthodox Church needs for its religious practice and refuse to return them? Where then is the belief in democracy and the freedom of religion and religious practice which the British are always preaching to the rest of the world?

The hope of many who are holding onto stolen cultural objects may be that time will obliterate the painful memories of such wrongful acts. Experience however has shown that no people ever forget such historical injustices and the Ethiopians have shown enough that they intend to recover their cultural treasures however long this may take. The article below shows the determination of the Ethiopians to keep on fighting for their rights. How long are the Western Europeans going to pretend not to hear the painful but courageous cries of the Ethiopians? Is the present generation of Europeans as rapacious, aggressive, insensitive and brutal as their forefathers? Are they going to condone the crimes and wrongdoings of the past generations? Only time will tell but they should make no mistake: the issue of restitution of stolen or looted objects will not disappear from our world.

Monday, December 22, 2008

Compare Mayan and Egyptian Mythology

An Ethiopian Journal
Connecting the dots on Ethiopia >>> The Truth Shall Set You Free

Comparing Mayan mythology to Egyptian, one finds uncanny similarities.

In Egyptian mythology, Osiris was creator and first ruler of Egypt. He was popular with his subjects, but his brother, Seth, was jealous of his popularity, plotted against him, deceived Osiris and killed him. Seth then cut the body into 14 pieces and spread the pieces throughout Egypt.
When Isis (wife of Osiris) learned her husband was killed, she searched Egypt looking for his body parts. She found all but one part, and using magic she put his body back together and wrapped him in bandages. During the process of putting him back together, Isis breathed life back into Osiris’ body and became impregnated, conceiving their son Horus.
The young Horus went out to battle his uncle Seth and avenge his father’s death.
After a series of contests and battles, neither god was able to secure an overall victory. Ultimately Osiris was declared king of the underworld, Horus king of the living, and Seth ruler of the deserts as the god of chaos and evil.
Horus eventually avenged his father’s death by killing his uncle Seth.
Horus became the god of the sky. One of his eyes is the sun and the other is the moon. Both are seen each day and night when, as a falcon, Horus flies across the sky.
One fascinating notion is that both the Egyptian and Mayan account described in this video could possibly have been derived from a more ancient source.
Even more remarkable parallels have been found between Mayan mythology and the biblical account of creation in the book of Genesis.



The Book of Revelation

The prediction for the next passage does not appear to be so fortuitous, perhaps indicating why the Anunnaki did not fulfil their promise to return in Jesus’ time. Kingship was not restored in the way that it had been promised. Instead, a new religion arose regarding the establishment of the Kingdom of God on Earth. With it came prophecies regarding ‘the next time’. Within the Book of Revelation there are references that have the distinct ring of the dark star about them.
Just as Nibiru brought catastrophe to Earth in the form of the Flood around 11,000 BC, so do certain prophecies portend future disaster following the Second Coming of the Lord. In Revelation 12:1-4;

“Next appeared a great portent in heaven, a woman robed with the sun, beneath her feet the moon, and on her head a crown of twleve stars. She was pregnant, and in the anguish of her labour she cried out to be delivered. Then a second portent appeared in heaven: a great red dragon with seven heads and ten horns; on his heads were seven diadems, and with his tail he swept down a third of the stars in the sky and flung them to the earth.” (1)
The pregnant woman in the sky is quite clearly Sirius, and this is a Christian rendition of the ancient Egyptian Isis myth. The moon is at her feet, implying that the scene is being observed upside-down, with the ecliptic below Sirius. This might imply the retrograde ‘birth’ of the Son celestially. The 12 stars in the crown are the lesser stars of the constellation Canis Major. Instead of the birth of the Celestial Messiah, however, this vision brings forth Nibiru and its moons in a far more malevolent aspect. Instead of Horus, we have Seth.
Ancient Sumerian religious texts described Nibiru as ‘the Lord’, and I think this was a device used by the early Christians, who appear to have understood this material well, but whose fledgling religion became irreconcilably altered through the reformation of Christianity by the Literalist Roman Church in subsequent centuries. Given that, it might be useful to try and make sense of these verses.
In His final teachings before His ascension, presumably back to Heaven, Jesus is said to have promised to return to Earth, prior to the Apocalypse, and save those faithful to Him by ascending them to Heaven. This was meant to have happened during the lifetime of the early followers, a claim that was either misunderstood, or simply not met. As such, the prophecy of Armageddon has remained with us down the centuries. It is linked with the appearance of a celestial ‘Satan’, that appears to resemble a ‘great red dragon’. We have already come across the ‘dragon’ imagery used to describe the dark star, and here we have it complete with 7 heads and 7 crowns, which would indicate to me the 7 moons.
“The seven heads are seven hills on which the woman sits. They represent also seven kings, of whom five have already fallen, one is now reigning, and the other is yet to come; and when he does he is only to last for a little while” Revelation 17: 9-10
The seven hills are allegorical for 7 celestial mountains, or planets, in the sense that Alan Alford has studied in great depth (2). The woman sat on the ‘hills’would indicate to me the presence of life on these moons, in a similar way that Gaia is the goddess of the Earth. The 10 horns are less easy to explain astronomically, and the Book of Revelation indicates that they are Kings who have yet to reign. This mirrors the verse above about the 7 Kings, of whom 5 have already reigned. This might correlate with the individual reigns of god-Kings for each Sar, or orbit of Nibiru. I wonder if these interpretations make reference to the number of Nibiruan passages left, in the same way that the demi-god reigns in the Egyptian and Sumerian King Lists allude to the passages of the Celestial Lord? In which case, which passage is the one that spells disaster?
The verse containing the reference to a tail encompassing a third part of heaven certainly brings a comet to mind. The tail described is vast. The line also describes a casting of the stars down to Earth. This is either meteoritic bombardment, or the movement of the heavens as seen from Earth. Perhaps there will be another tilt of the axis of the Earth, with a repeat of the ‘sky falling’. Does the overall sense of this describe an astronomical phenomenon associated with the dark star Nibiru? I think that it does, and the link between this vision of Armageddon and the return of the Messiah further strengthens the case in my mind. In the Christian religion, the duality is between Christ and Satan.
While Satan destroys the world physically, the faithful are spiritually elevated by Christ.
The Book of Revelation contains much detail about the ‘Beast’ and the ‘Dragon’, that I presume to be a description of the red Star, the ‘planet’ Nibiru. There are many references also to the seven angels, who are the 7 moons of Nibiru. The Beast is both number 8, and also one of the seven:
“As for the beast that once was alive and is alive no longer, he is an eighth – and yet he is one of the seven, and he is going to perdition” Revelation 17: 11
The Beast is the brown dwarf, a ‘planet’ that once shone brightly with its own light when primordial. It now gives out little visible light, and is a dark star. It is technically the 8th star in the configuration, yet its presence is really the essence of the 7 planetary ‘stars’ (moons), as it defines the Nibiruan system.
The number usually associated with the Beast is 666. In his book ‘The Cosmic Code’, Zecharia Sitchin has explored the meaning of this numerical figure using the methods of Gematria.
He has speculated that the meaning of this figure has less to do with the Greek word LATEINOS, depicting the Roman Empire, but instead was derived from the Hebrew SiTRO, which means ‘his secret’ or ‘his hidden thing’(3).
Sitchin then shows a link with the Sumerian-derived account of the Celestial Battle in the form of Psalms 18: “The Earth shook and trembled, the foundations of the hills were shaken… There went up smoke from his nostrils, A devouring fire went out of his mouth… He made darkness his secret, By a watery darkness and celestial clouds covered.” Psalms 18: 8-12 [His emphasis]
Sitchin has not finished there. Taking the Biblical names for the planets of the Celestial Battle, Tehom Rabah, Sitchin concludes: ‘…then a numerical approach to the enigma of the “666” would suggest that the Book of Revelation was speaking of the Return of the Celestial Lord in a re-enactment of the Celestial Battle; for the sum total of the numerical value of Az [“then”] + Tehom + Rabah is 666” (3).
He may be correct, as we are about to see. Zecharia Sitchin generally steers clear of Christian mythology, but this reference within the Book of Revelation to hidden knowledge about Nibiru strongly implies that the Christian religion itself is built upon such hidden teachings. The direct references to be found within the Book of Revelation begin to make a lot of sense when one bears in mind the image of the red coloured Celestial Lord with its seven attendant moons.
The Origin of 'Satan'
This dual identity in Judaeo-Christian myth between the Messianic Star and a celestial Anti-Christ, Satan, reflects the very same duality used by the ancient Egyptians. We have already seen how the dark star can take on the guise of the Messianic Horus, or the evil red-haired Seth. An isolated Kurdish sect maintains a belief in ‘Shaitan’, as well as a strong tradition connected with the Flood. The Yezidis live in the highlands of Eastern Turkey and believe that Shaitan is the ‘true force of divine power in the world, and that they themselves are descendants of Seth, the third son of Adam’ (4). In the same way as we reduce the ancient ‘Shumer’ to ‘Sumer’, Shaitan can be reduced to ‘Saitan’. That this ancient and rather bizarre tradition is maintained at all is remarkable, given the persecution that the Yezidis have brought upon themselves for their ‘Satan-worship’. But the link with the Flood and the landing of the Ark of Noah in the very same mountains, might give us an insight into how a celestial ‘Satan’ was linked with the Flood in the first place.
The Nature of the Apocalypse
The nature of the Apocalypse, caused by a Nibiruan passage through the planetary zone, might take a number of guises. A straightforward analysis of the planetary interactions would have it that the close passage of Nibiru would directly cause a tilt of the Earth, or even a disruption to the orbit of our planet, by gravitational interaction. But this seems very unlikely at the distance we are talking of here, even at celestial Opposition. It is true that Nibiru passes within the orbit of Jupiter, and is a bigger body. But one recognises that even an alignment of the known planets causes no such gravitational effect, so why should Nibiru’s passage through the asteroid belt? Its gravitational effect will not be significantly greater than Jupiter. This has allowed many to dismiss Sitchin’s arguments about Nibiru’s powerful gravitational effect on the Earth, particularly as Sitchin regards Nibiru to be a much smaller body than I do. There are a couple of points to make that may make a direct gravitational effect more likely as a force to be reckoned with.
Firstly, the planets in the solar system are arranged in an orderly fashion, lying as they do on the same plane, the ecliptic. Pluto is an exception, but its nature is less planet-like than the others, anyway. The planets are also regularly spaced and enjoy roughly circular orbits. The forces between the planets and the Sun lie in two dimensions, across the plane of the ecliptic. Nibiru does not have this kind of orbit at all. It has a highly elongated orbit that is inclined to the ecliptic to a greater degree than Pluto. Its gravitational muscle will interact with the Earth in three dimensions, not two, and will potentially exert forces along the vector perpendicular to that of the other planets. This would lend some credence to the idea that Nibiru could affect the Earth by its direct gravitational effect. However, the evidence within the solar system tends to negate this argument. Mars, for instance, would surely have a much more erratic orbit. The paper by Hills also gives theoretical findings that show us how little a brown dwarf would affect the orbits of the planets when one passes through the planetary zone:
“It is evident from the lack of damage to the planetary orbits that no Oort cloud object as massive as 0.05M* has passed through the planetary system since the dissipation of the solar nebula. Because the change in the eccentricity is proportional to the intruder mass Mi, any intrusions of objects from the Oort cloud having masses less than about 0.02M* = 20 Jupiter masses would not have produced a noticeable effect on the orbits of the planets. One or two such intruders could pass through the planetary system and not noticeably perturb the present orbits of the planets (unless an intruder happened to make an improbably close encounter with one of the planets, or unless its perihelion distance Rmin was very much less than the semimajor axes of the planets)”. (5)
M* is the mass of the Sun. Since the Perturber, our brown dwarf Nibiru, has been calculated to have only several times the mass of the planet Jupiter, it falls well within this limit set by Hills. As such, it will not alter the orbits of the planets unless it makes an ‘improbably close encounter’, which is highly unlikely given that perihelion is around the position of the asteroid belt. So Nibiru will not adversely affect the Earth directly.
But the ‘binding energies’ of the planets gives as a different perspective on how planets can affect each other’s orbits, and in that I think we can find a clue to how the ‘sky fell’. In turn, this could indicate how the Earth could once again be affected by the perihelion passage of the dark star. If Nibiru’s orbit is unstable, and it would certainly appear to be, then changes affecting it would then have a knock-on effect on the other planets.
If the Anunnaki were able to discern the solar system planetary configuration when Nibiru next passes through, and this does not appear to be an unreasonable supposition, then they might be able to predict when problems might occur. Remarkably, this would very much depend on the alignments of the planets, as seen from Earth.
Let me explain. If Nibiru passes through a zodiacal house during its perihelion passage (either Leo/Cancer or Taurus/Aries), and at that time there are other planets in that constellation, then the alignment would indicate conjunction with those planets. This doesn’t necessarily hold for Mercury or Venus, but these two inner planets are unlikely to make a difference to Nibiru anyway. The real players are Jupiter, Saturn and possibly Uranus and Neptune, or even Mars. When Nibiru lines up with one of these planets as it transits the planet’s ‘station’, then its unstable orbit might be affected by the close passage past the planet. It could experience a small sling-shot action, and this might alter its orbit once again. The stable, known planet would be less likely to be affected because it sits in a stable orbital configuration and is ‘shepherded’ by the Sun’. Nibiru is far more erratic, and a small tug could potentially make a bigger difference to its orbit, as the calculations by Hills show (5). A change in Nibiru’s orbit would change its biding energy and, thus, the binding energies of the other planets. Hence, the ‘sky would fall’. Without coming near the Earth, Nibiru could cause massive damage to the Earth’s orbit, tilt and environment.
From the perspective of observers on Earth, the zodiacal alignments of the planets during the Nibiruan perihelion passage take on great importance. Astrology then takes on an entirely new meaning. The configurations of the planets during the perihelion passage would indicate in advance the fate Earth would suffer. Planets at opposition to each other would mean a peaceful transit of the dark star, but planets in conjunction could potentially spell disaster. I suspect this is where the ‘12 planets’ really takes on meaning. Nibiru offers the key to our understanding of ancient astrology, and potentially leads us to daring conclusions about the work of astrologers and seers like Nostradamus.
If the Book of Revelation sets out the nature of the next orbit, then we might find the following passages of great interest:
“But one of the elders said to me: ‘Do not weep; for the Lion from the tribe of Judah, the Scion of David, has won the right to open the scroll and break its seven seals’”. Revelation 5: 5
This reference to the Lion is made in conjunction with the ‘Scion of David’ (the ‘Star’) and the breaking of the seven seals (the appearance of the 7 stars of Nibiru):
“I, Jesus, have sent my angel to you with this testimony for the churches. I am the scion and offspring of David, the bright star of dawn.” Revelation 22:16
So Jesus is equated with the Scion of David, and is the bright star of dawn. He is the human embodiment of the Messianic Star. We already know that Nibiru cuts across the ecliptic in Cancer, moving from Leo as it does so, and the relative perspective of the constellation Nibiru appears in at that point depends on the Earth’s position relative to the Sun and Nibiru at the time. For the ‘seven seals to be broken’ when Nibiru transits Leo is highly likely, as the stars begin to appear as Nibiru rushes towards perihelion. This passage sets the scene for what is to come.
The Apocalypse is tied to the Lamb, who is equated with Christ. But the Lamb could also be an astronomical reference, tying Nibiru to the zodiacal constellation of Aries. Nibiru passes through Aries as it leaves the perihelion voyage to exit the solar system, and this occurs as Nibiru again cuts the ecliptic. In the same way that Orion is associated with the Flood passage of Nibiru, Aries appears to be associated with the passage of the future Apocalypse. The fight between the Lamb and the dragon, or beast, appears to refer to Nibiru’s transit through Aries, and the disaster that ensues. Does Jupiter lie in Aries at the time?
“Then I looked, and on Mount Zion stood the Lamb, and with him were a hundred and forty-four thousand who had his name and the name of his Father written on their foreheads.” Revelation 14:1
Does Mount Zion refer to one of the planets, possibly Jupiter or Saturn, lying in Aries as Nibiru ascends towards this constellation from the Duat? The figure 144,000 is not a reference to the number of human followers of Christ, but to years.
144,000 is divisible by one Nibiruan orbit of 3,600 years by exactly 40, and so this verse clearly alludes to 40 orbits of Nibiru.
The Celestial Battle of the Apocalypse as described in the Book of Revelation is a complex affair. It appears to describe the same events over again, giving the impression of a succession of actions, when they might be accounts of a few celestial movements in the sky. The dragon is thrown down from the sky, for instance, and this might allude to its drop into the Duat, or to the sky falling during the ensuing battle. There is a great struggle between good and evil, before the beast is finally chained up. But its banishment into the abyss is only 1000 years, and this might indicate a major change in Nibiru’s orbit as a result of this new Celestial Battle:
“Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven with the key of the abyss and a great chain in his hands. He seized the dragon, that serpent of old, the Devil or Satan, and chained him up for a thousand years; he threw him into the abyss, shutting and sealing it over him, so that he might seduce the nations no more until a thousand years were over. After that he must be let loose for a while.” Revelation 20: 1-4
After this period of one thousand years, during which Christ’s peace reigns on the Earth, and the Christian martyrs have been resurrected, the celestial ‘dragon’ returns from his dungeon in the abyss. Then follows the Day of Judgement. The followers of Christ find a new home in Heaven, where the light of the Moon and Sun are no longer required. This celestial vision ends the Prophecy, perhaps alluding to everlasting life in the Nibiru system.
The Book of Revelation can be interpreted in many ways. It is full of colourful imagery, and is difficult to fathom, but there are celestial references contained within that appear to marry well with the older mythologies that pre-dated Christianity. The allegories contained within this book of prophecy may stem from those older myths about the Winged Disc. More frightening still is the possibility that the astrology of Nibiru’s perihelion may have indicated to the ancients that the next passage spelt trouble.

Written by Andy Lloyd, author of 'The Dark Star'
Published by Timeless Voyager Press 2005
© April 2001

1) Thanks to P. Mistlberger, Rowland BBS ‘Zecharia Sitchin’ April/May 2000 2) A. Alford “When the Gods Came Down” Hodder & Stoughton 2000 3) Z. Sitchin "The Cosmic Code" pp166-8 Avon 1998 4) D. Rohl “Legend: The Genesis of Civilisation” p146 Arrow 1998 5) J. Hills “The Passage of a Nemesis-like object through the planetary system” Astron. J. 90, 1876-1882, 1985
1.Detail from: 'Jerusalem' (c. 1804-1820, William Blake) 2. The Beast. Borrowed from somewhere on the Net. Neat pic, even if it probably isn't what the writer of Revelation had in mind... 3. "The Four and Twenty Elders Casting their Crowns before the Divine Throne" (c.1803-5, William Blake, at the Tate Gallery, London) 4. Buch der Heiligen Dreifaltigkeit, early 15th Century ("The seven planets, metals and virtues and assigned to his extremities, his body and his wound in his side" Alexander Roob, Taschen 2001)
One Thousand Years to The Day...
Here are some additional points made by Larry Schamber, who considers it possible that there is a coded reference to the orbital period of Nibiru in the Book of Revelation. A Day signifies a Millennium, and the many references to 3.5 days hence allude to a Nibiruan Age:
"I'll give the 1000 years is a day first:
Psalm 90:2-4 Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God. [3] Thou turnest man to destruction; and sayest, Return, ye children of men. [4] For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night.
I include the following because through connections that I cannot quite explain, I believe this could be a prophesy of the return of Christ. The "in the fourth watch in the night" could be interpreted as a passage of 3.5 times = 3.5 God's years = 3500 years. If that is the key then the rest of the interpretation easily falls out...
The sea = abyss = the visible arch of sky = the changeable future (sea is like the future, fluid, in flux and always subject to change) ... Mindful of this analogy we could see the meaning of Jesus walking upon the waters:: Jesus walking in the heavens. A wandering object in the heavens could be Nibiru.
Rev. 11:9 And they of the people and kindreds and tongues and nations shall see their dead bodies three days and an half, and shall not suffer their dead bodies to be put in graves.
Rev. 11:11-13 And after three days and an half the Spirit of life from God entered into them, and they stood upon their feet; and great fear fell upon them which saw them. [12] And they heard a great voice from heaven saying unto them, Come up hither. And they ascended up to heaven in a cloud; and their enemies beheld them. [13] And the same hour was there a great earthquake, and the tenth part of the city fell, and in the earthquake were slain of men seven thousand: and the remnant were affrighted, and gave glory to the God of heaven.
Something to think about."
Larry 5th November 2001
Larry has further evidence to substantiate this proposal and can be contacted by e-mail: larry_schamber@hotmail.com
The Hampton Throne
Greg Jenner has been researching the enigmatic 'Hampton Thrones' and wonders whether the mix of Winged Disc symbolism and anticipation of the second Coming of Christ could be interlinked:
Thought you might be interested in this:
I got my hands on an interesting book called ‘Time’s Arrow Time’s Cycle – Myth and Metaphor in the Discovery of Geological Time’ by: Stephen Jay Gould. Copy-rite 1987, Harvard University Press.
On page 181 Gould mentions a person named James Hampton who was an African American originally from South Carolina and later became a janitor in Washington D.C. (1909-1964). Beginning in 1931 he had ‘instructions’ from angels to build a throne for the second coming of Christ and as it turns out he built 177 pieces altogether for his ‘Christ throne room.’ He eventually died in 1964 but left behind some very unusual artwork pieces that you can now view at the National Museum of American Art in Washington D.C.
What caught my attention though was the re-occurring theme of a ball with wings splattered throughout his artwork. Where have we seen this symbology before?! What is so amazing to me is the entire book is devoted to THE CYCLE OF TIME, and the BALL WITH WINGS on Hampton’s throne is a great example of this.
Was Hampton visualizing Nibiru? I think so!"
From Greg Jenner, 16th March 2004

Celebrating Kwanzaa*

kwanza Pictures, Images and Photos

kwanza Pictures, Images and Photos

Kwanzaa is a unique African American celebration with focus on the traditional African values of family, community responsibility, commerce, and self-improvement. Kwanzaa is neither political nor religious and despite some misconceptions, is not a substitute for Christmas. It is simply a time of reaffirming African-American people, their ancestors and culture. Kwanzaa, which means "first fruits of the harvest" in the African language Kiswahili, has gained tremendous acceptance. Since its founding in 1966 by Dr. Maulana Karenga, Kwanzaa has come to be observed by more than18 million people worldwide, as reported by the New York Times. When establishing Kwanzaa in 1966, Dr. Karenga included an additional "a" to the end of the spelling to reflect the difference between the African American celebration (kwanzaa) and the Motherland spelling (kwanza).
Kwanzaa is based on the Nguzo Saba (seven guiding principles), one for each day of the observance, and is celebrated from December 26th to January 1st.

Umoja (oo-MO-jah) Unity stresses the importance of togetherness for the family and the community, which is reflected in the African saying, "I am We," or "I am because We are."
Kujichagulia (koo-gee-cha-goo-LEE-yah) Self-Determination requires that we define our common interests and make decisions that are in the best interest of our family and community.
Ujima (oo-GEE-mah) Collective Work and Responsibility reminds us of our obligation to the past, present and future, and that we have a role to play in the community, society, and world.
Ujamaa (oo-JAH-mah) Cooperative economics emphasizes our collective economic strength and encourages us to meet common needs through mutual support.
Nia (NEE-yah) Purpose encourages us to look within ourselves and to set personal goals that are beneficial to the community.
Kuumba (koo-OOM-bah) Creativity makes use of our creative energies to build and maintain a strong and vibrant community.
Imani (ee-MAH-nee) Faith focuses on honoring the best of our traditions, draws upon the best in ourselves, and helps us strive for a higher level of life for humankind, by affirming our self-worth and confidence in our ability to succeed and triumph in righteous struggle.

CELEBRATING KWANZAA As it is always better to get an early start, I suggest that you begin the first week in December by making a check list for the following items: A Kinara (candle holder); Mkeka (placemat preferably made of straw); Mazao (crops, i.e., fruits and vegetables); Vibunzi/Muhindi (ears of corn to reflect the number of children in the household); Kikombe cha umoja (communal unity cup); Mishumaa saba (seven candles, one black, three red, and three green); and Zawadi (gifts that are enriching).

It is important that the Kinara not be confused with the menorah.*
The Kinara holds seven candles to reflect the seven principles which are the foundation of Kwanzaa. If you don't have a Kinara and don't know where to get one, it is suggested that you use "kuumba" (creativity) and make one. A 2x4 or a piece of driftwood will do just fine, and screw-in candle holders can be purchased in most hardware stores. The Mkeka (place mat) shouldn't present a problem. While straw is suggested because it is traditional, cloth makes an adequate substitute. If cloth is used, one with an African print is preferred. The other symbols are easy to come by and warrant no further discussion other than to caution against placing the Mazao (crops)in a cornucopia which is Western. A plain straw basket or a bowl will do just fine. One last note, even households without any children should place an ear of corn on the place mat to symbolize the African concept of social parenthood. All seven symbols are creatively placed on top of the place mat, i.e., the symbols should be attractively arranged as they form the Kwanzaa centerpiece.

DECORATING THE HOME The Kinara along with the other symbols of Kwanzaa should dominate the room, which should be given an African motif. This is easily achieved and shouldn't result in too much expense. The colors of Kwanzaa are black, red and green. This should be kept in mind when decorating the home. Black, red and green streamers, balloons, cloth, flowers, and African prints can be hung tastefully around the room. Original art and sculpture may be displayed as well.
GIFTS Kuumba (creativity) is greatly encouraged. Not only is Kuumba one of the seven principles, it also brings a sense of personal satisfaction and puts one squarely into the spirit of Kwanzaa. Therefore, those symbols that can be made, should be made. The giving of gifts during Kwanzaa should be affordable and of an educational or artistic nature. Gifts are usually exchanged between parents and children and traditionally given on January 1st, the last day of Kwanzaa. However, gift giving during Kwanzaa may occur at any time.

kwanza kinara Pictures, Images and Photos
THE KWANZAA FEAST OR KARAMU The Kwanzaa Karumu is traditionally held on December 31st (participants celebrating New Year's Eve, should plan their Karamu early in the evening). It is a very special event as it is the one Kwanzaa event that brings us closer to our African roots. The Karamu is a communal and cooperative effort. Ceremonies and cultural expressions are highly encouraged. It is important to decorate the place where the Karamu will be held, (e.g., home, community center, church) in an African motif that utilizes black, red, and green color scheme. A large Kwanzaa setting should dominate the room where the karamu will take place. A large Mkeka should be placed in the center of the floor where the food should be placed creatively and made accessible to all for self-service. Prior to and during the feast, an informative and entertaining program should be presented. Traditionally, the program involved welcoming, remembering, reassessment, recommitment and rejoicing, concluded by a farewell statement and a call for greater unity.
Below is a suggested format for the Karamu program, from a model by Dr. Karenga.
Kukaribisha (Welcoming) Introductory Remarks and Recognition of Distinguished Guests and All Elders. Cultural Expression (Songs, Music, Group Dancing, Poetry, Performances, Unity Circles)
Kuumba (Remembering) Reflections of a Man, Woman and Child. Cultural Expression
Kuchunguza Tena Na Kutoa Ahadi Tena (Reassessment and Recommitment) Introduction of Distinguished Guest Lecturer and Short Talk.
Kushangilla (Rejoicing)
Tamshi la Tambiko (Libation Statement)
It is tradition to pour libation in remembrance of the ancestors on all special occasions. Kwanzaa, is such an occasion, as it provides us an opportunity to reflect on our African past and American present. Water is suggested as it holds the essence of life and should be placed in a communal cup and poured in the direction of the four winds; north, south, east, and west. It should then be passed among family members and guests who may either sip from the cup or make a sipping gesture.
For The Motherland cradle of civilization. For the ancestors and their indomitable spirit For the elders from whom we can learn much. For our youth who represent the promise for tomorrow. For our people the original people. For our struggle and in remembrance of those who have struggled on our behalf. For Umoja the principle of unity which should guide us in all that we do. For the creator who provides all things great and small.. Kikombe Cha Umoja (Unity Cup) Kutoa Majina (Calling Names of Family Ancestors and Black Heroes) Ngoma (Drums) Karamu (Feast)
Tamshi la Tutaonana (The Farewell Statement)

Friday, December 19, 2008

Stolen Legacy* Egyptian Mystery System* (secret science)

Secret Science: Numeral symbols geographic symbols, myths, parables book of the dead*

There are 9 major planets,
(2) The Sun is the parent of the others planets- this is later being supported by --Nebular Hypothesis.
Let's remember, also that the worship of planet begain in Egypt. Temples were the first observations of history. In addition, to prove the existence of God or the first cause by reference; Actually, Aristotle simply followed the tradition custom of the one who use the principle of "Opposites" in order to explain the functions of nature.
-Plato, used it, through the theory of "Ideas", to explain the real and unreal in the phenomena of nature. - Socrates used it in order to estab lish the fact of immortality by showing that the death of one form of life, existing things.... The beginning of another form of life of these things, In other words Life is perpetual, it only changes it form in its cause of process. -Democritus applied the principle, of Opposites in his interpretation, of a particular phase of reality. We can not therefore, consider Aristotle's review of the doctrines. Previous Philosophers including Plato together with his exposure of their errors and inconsistencies, showed that he had become confident , not only of the fact that he was in possession of a new and correct knowledge , had not before been made available to the greeks. Also, that he could then speak with authority, right here and now.....
I must say that I am convinced that Aristotle represented a culture gap of 5,000 years or more between his innovation and the greeks level of civilization. My reason being....it is impossible to escape the convictions that he ordained in his education and books from a nation outside of Greece, the Egyptians who were way far in advance of the culture of greek of his day.

According to the doctrine that has been ascribed to Aristotle: matter, motion of time are eternal , therefore the world is also eternal. He plainly accepted and repeats a doctrine which has also been ascribed to Democritus (400 yrs B.C.) whose dictum we all are familar with...
ex. nihillo nihil fit....(nothing more nothing left) and consequently, as a matter of the world must always have existed. The antiquity of the doctrine of eternal nature of matter, take us back to the creation story of Memphite Theology of the Egyptians. In which Chaos is represented by Primeval Ocean Nun. Out of which there arose Primeval Hill Ta-tjenen Under these, circumstances we can not give Aristotle credit for the authorship of this document. In addition, to the false document that has been attributed to Aristotle.
Aristotle contradicts himself in his physics VIII 25. When he speaks of the world as a caused a thing , cannot be eternal and infinite and at the same time finite

Tuesday, December 16, 2008

New Discovery in the World's Oldest Star Map

The astronomical knowledge of the ancient Egyptians turns out to be surprising broader than previously imagined. According to a new analysis, the world's oldest star- map seems to contain information of an actual celestial event of its time. This recent discovery, uncovers the earlies scienticfic description of an otherwise rare but not unknown celestial phenomenon.
This 3,500- year old star map, which decorates one of the ceilings in the tomb of SENUMUT (Senenmut) near Luxor (Thebes), appararently demonstrates a previously unknown aspect of the astronomical situation in Egypt around 1,500 BC. This revelations is the result of investigations by Danish researcher Ove von Spaeth, and published in July-August-00 in vol. 42 of the international journal of history of science "Centaurus".

The Map configurations have been considered mostly as mythological displays, are now disclolsed to be accurate depictions of a rare gathering of planets in well-defined celestial positions. The information contained in the map refers to a specific point of time. The re-evaluations of this subsequent maps give birth to perspectives: by introducing these new reference points of time, the appropriate chronology of the epoch in question, which has been much disputed, may now be dated with considerably greater precision than hertofore possible.


Monday, December 15, 2008

Journey to the Empire of Mali

Mali Empire Sig by Venta Icenor Um Pictures, Images and Photos

The storytellers called griots tell of ancient Mali, an empire that grew rich on the trade routes of the Sahara from the 13th to the 16th centuries. Mali came to power under the leadership of Mari Diata, who later became known as Sundiata, or "the lion prince". Sundiata came out of exile to defeat the king of the Susu in 1230, and he brought the Malinke chiefs together under his rule. His people believed Sundiata to be a powerful magician king, and most of what we know about him has been passed down through centuries by the griots.
Mansa Musa, who ruled from 1307 until approximately 1337, led Mali into the height of its power. During his reign, Mali took over the trading cities Timbuktu and Gao. Mansa Musa sent ambassadors to Egypt and the other North African states, and brought Egyptian scholars to his cities. He went on a pilgrimage to Mecca and spread the fame of Mali as far as Europe. When he returned home, he brought back ideas from the countries he visited and a desire to reform his country's religion, making it more like orthodox Islam.
Read more about the ancient kingdoms of Africa online and in the library:
On the Web
Ancient Africahttp://www.penncharter.com/Student/africa/index.html
This site briefly compares the governments of ancient Mali, Ghana, and Songhay. See artifacts from the old kingdoms and learn more about their cultures.
Kids Edition and Biography Resource Center via CRRL's Online Databaseshttp://www.answerpoint.org/subpage.asp?category_id=28
Use your CRRL library card to get magazine and encyclopedia articles on the Mali Empire, Mansa Musa, and Sundiata Keita.
Mr. Dowling's Electronic Passport: Ancient Africahttp://www.mrdowling.com/609-timbuktu.html
Articles describe Timbuktu, Mansa Musa, and Sundiata and have links to additional sources. Mr. Dowling is a geography teacher in West Palm Beach, Florida.
The Story of Africa: West African Kingdomshttp://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/index_section4.shtml
Learn about the old ancient kingdoms of Mali, Ghana, Kaneum, Songhay, Hausa States, Asante, Ife and Benin. A rich site complete with maps and online recordings of the BBC programs.
Timbuktu, Mali from the History Channelhttp://www.historychannel.com/classroom/unesco/timbuktu.html
Timbuktu, the great trading city, had its beginnings when a young herder woman named Buktu found an oasis for her herds during the dry season. Timbuktu (Buktu's Well) went on to become an important stop for nomads and traders in the Sahara region.
In the Library
Encarta Africana compact disc is available on the library computers at many branches. Call for availability.
Ghana, Mali, Songhay: The Western Sudan. Mann, Kenny.Juvenile Non-Fiction 966.1 Ma
Learn about the three kingdoms: their legends, politics, and religion. Illustrated with designs from ancient pottery and weaving.
Mansa Musa: The Lion of Mali. Burns, Khephra.Juvenile Fiction Bur
Read the beautiful legend of the boy who grew up to become Mali's great fourteenth-century leader, Mansa Musa.
The Road to TimbuktuVideo 9.60 W87
Although not geared to elementary grades, this PBS special gives a fascinating tour of the ancient empires of Africa. The series has a related Internet site.
Sundiata: Lion King of Mali. Wisniewski, David.Juvenile Non-Fiction 921 Sundi
Sundiata's story of victory both for himself and his land is retold with glorious illustrations. The notes at the end give information on the ancient African kingdoms.
Sundiata: The Epic of the Lion King, Retold. Bertol, Roland.Juvenile Non-Fiction 398.22 BE
A retelling of the African epic in which a cast out child grew up to become the liberator and founder of the great empire of old Mali.
The Royal Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay: Life in Medieval Africa. McKissack, Pat.Juvenile Non-Fiction 966.1 Mc
A history of the wealthy civilizations of the Western Sudan which flourished from 700 to 1700. The book theorizes contact between the African empires and Mesoamerica.

History Timeline -Chronology of Important Events

Ghana Flag Pictures, Images and Photos
ca. 10,000 B.C. Earliest recorded probable human habitation within modern Ghana at site on Oti River.
ca. 4000 B.C. Oldest date for pottery at Stone Age site near Accra.
ca. 100 B.C. Early Iron Age at Tema. FORMATIVE CENTURIES
ca. A.D. 1200 Guan begin their migrations down Volta Basin from Gonja toward Gulf of Guinea.
ca. 1298 Akan kingdom of Bono (Brong) founded. Other states had arisen or were beginning to rise about this time.
1471-82 First Europeans arrive. Portuguese build Elmina Castle.
1482 - Portuguese set up trading settlement.
1500-1807 Era of slave raids and wars and of intense state formation in Gold Coast.
1697-1745 Rise and consolidation of Asante Empire.
1874 - British proclaim coastal area a crown colony. NINETEENTH CENTURY
1817 - 1821: Two ambassadors were sent to Kumasi to discuss peace with King Osei Bonsu. This failed.
1823 - 1824: In Asante Denkyira war, Sir Charles Macarthy and his Fante allies supported the Denkyiras. Marcathy was killed.
1826: The Asantes were defeated in the Battle of Kantamanto near Dodowa.
1831: George Maclean signed treaty with the Asantes. 600 ounces of Gold kept for the Asantes. Two princes sent to Britain. Returned after 6 years in 1842.
1843-44 British government signs Bond of 1844 with Fante chiefs.
1863: Battle of Bobikuma. Britain defeated
1864: Britain lost another war.
1873-1877: Kofi Karikari invaded Southern and coastal areas. Major General Sir Garnet Woseley with British expedition forces defeated the Asantes. Treaty of Fomena in 1874. Asante forced to recognize the Independence of all states south of the Pra River.
1873-74 Last Asante invasion of coast. British capture Kumasi.
1874 Britain establishes Gold Coast Colony.
1878 Cocoa introduced to Ghana.
1888: Nana Agyeman Prempeh I ascended the throne of the Asante Kingdom.
1896 Anglo-Asante war leads to exile of asantehene and British protectorate over Asante. - British troops marched to Kumasi, led by Sir Francis Scott. The king was exiled first to the Elmina Castle, then to Sierra Leone and later to Seychels.
1897 Aboriginess right Protection society. TWENTIETH CENTURY -Pre Independence
1900: First Africans appointed to colony's Legislative Council. Arnold Hodgson went to ask for the golden stool. The Asantes were infuriated. Yaa Asantewaa, the queen mother of Edwiso (Ejisu) led attack on the British Fort in Kumasi.
1902: Northern Territories proclaimed a British protectorate.
1914-18: Gold Coast Regiment serves with distinction in East Africa.
1919: German Togo becomes a mandate under Gold Coast administration.
1924: Nana Agyemang Prempeh I returned . Died in 1931.
1925: Constitution of 1925 calls for six chiefs to be elected to Legislative Council. Guggisburg Constitution
1935: Prempeh II Asante Confideracy Council.
1939-45 Gold Coast African forces serve in Ethiopia and Burma.
1947 United Gold Coast Convention founded.
1948 Nii Kwabena Bone II--an Accra chief organised the boycott of Europen and Syrian, Lebanese goods.
28 Feb 1948: Ex-servicemen marched on Christianborg Castle to hand petition to the governor about their poor conditions. The order was given and 3 laid dead. UGCC was held responsible and its officers were detained. (The dead were sergeant Adjetey, Corporal Attipoe, and Private Odartey Lamptey). The six detained were Kwame Nkrumah, Obetsebi Lamptey, Ako Adjei, Ofori-Atta, Dr Danquah and Akuffo Addo. Mr Aiken Watson was appointed by the British Government to look into disturbances. He recommended a new constitution. Mr J Cousey headed this committee.
1949 Kwame Nkrumah breaks with United Gold Coast Convention and forms Convention People's Party. Internal trouble in UGCC. Nkrumah broke off to form his own Convention Peoples' Party (CPP), with the slogan of SELF GOVERNMENT NOW.
1951 New constitution leads to general elections. Convention People's Party wins two-thirds majority. First General election . CPP won 34 seats , UGCC --3. Kwame Nkrumah who was in prison for positive action, won the seat in central Accra, and was released to become the leader of Govt business, and Prime Minister on 21 March 1952.
1954 New constitution grants broad powers to Nkrumah's government. 104 elected representatives. CPP --72 seats, Northern People's Party (NPP) - 15, Independents - 11, and others - 6.The NLM (National Liberation Movement ) was formed by linguist Baffour Akoto. Leader was J B Danquah, and Dr K.A. Bussia - member. This group wanted a federal government.
1956 Plebiscite in British Togoland calls for union with Gold Coast. There was another election. CPP won 72 of the 104 seats. The NLM and its allies won the remaining seats and so became the parliamentary opposition. The former British Mandated Togoland also voted to join the Gold Coast--Ghana.
Convention People's Party wins 68 percent of seats in legislature and passes an independence motion, which British Parliament approves.
1957 British Colony of the Gold Coast becomes independent Ghana on March 6. TWENTIETH CENTURY -Post Independence
1958 Entrenched protection clauses of constitution repealed; regional assemblies abolished; Preventive Detention Act passed.
1960 Plebiscite creates a republic on July 1, with Nkrumah as president.
1964 Ghana declared a one-party state. Completion of Akosombo Dam.
1966: Feb 24 - While Nkrumah is in China, army stages widely popular coup. National Liberation Council(NLC), led by General Joseph Ankrah, comes to power. Russian and Chinese technicians expelled.
1969: General Ankrah is replaced by Brigadier Akwasi Afrifa in April, a new constitution is introduced and the ban on party politics is lifted the following month. August -- an election for a new National Assembly is held, the Progress Party (PP) wins and is led by Dr Kofi Busia, who is subsequently appointed Prime Minister. The PP government takes office in October.
1972 Lieutenant Colonel Ignatius Acheampong leads a military coup in January that brings National Redemption Council to power.
1975: The NRC is replaced by the Supreme Military Council (SMC) also led by Acheampong.
1978: A referendum is held in favour of union government. July 5 Acheampong forced to resign by fellow officers; General Frederick Akuffo takes over. TWENTIETH CENTURY -Rawlings Era
1979: The ban on party politics is lifted and 16 new parties are subsequently registered. May - A coup staged by junior officers of the armed forces, led by Flt-Lt Jerry Rawlings, fails on 15 May and he is subsequently imprisoned. June 4 - Junior officers stage Ghana's first violent coup. Armed Forces Revolutionary Council formed under Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings. July - Hilla Limann elected president in July.
1981: Rawlings stages second coup, December 31. Provisional National Defence Council established with Rawlings as chairman.
1983: First phase of Economic Recovery Program introduced with World Bank and International Monetary Fund support. Rawlings adopts conservative economic policies, abolishing subsidies and price controls, privatising many state enterprises and devaluing the currency.
1985 National Commission for Democracy, established to plan the democratization of Ghana's political system, officially inaugurated in January.
1988-89: Elections for new district assemblies begin in early December and continue through February 1989.
1990: Various organizations call for return to civilian government and multiparty politics, among them Movement for Freedom and Justice, founded in August.
1991: Provisional National Defence Council announces its acceptance, in May, of multipartyism in Ghana. June deadline set for creation of Consultative Assembly to discuss nation's new constitution.
1992: National referendum in April approves draft of new democratic constitution. Formation and registration of political parties becomes legal in May.
Jerry Rawlings elected president November 3 in national presidential election. Parliamentary elections of December 29 boycotted by major opposition parties, resulting in landslide victory for National Democratic Congress.
1993: Ghana's Fourth Republic inaugurated January 4 with the swearing in of Rawlings as president.
1994: One thousand people are killed and a further 150,000 are displaced in the Northern Region following ethnic clashes between the Konkomba and the Nanumba over land ownership. Late 1994- Ghana hosts peace talks for warring factions early 1995 of Liberian civil war.
1995 President Rawlings pays official visit to the United States March 8-9, first such visit by a Ghanaian head of state in more than thirty years. Government imposes curfew in Northern Region as renewed ethnic violence results in a further 100 deaths.
1996: Jerry Rawlings re-elected president for second and last term 21st CENTURY
2000: Presidential and Parliamentary elections took place on 7 December 2000. Opposition leader John Kufuor polled 48.4% of the vote, not enough to win the first round. John Atta Mills scored 44.8% with the five other parties scooping the remaining votes. In parallel parliamentary elections, the NPP achieved a majority taking 99 seats. NDC took 92, PNC 3, Convention People's Party 1, independents 4. The Presidential run-off between Kufuor and Mills took place on 28 December 2000. Kufuor won taking 57% of the votes cast.
2001: Kufuor is Sworn in as the new president in January 7. 26 February -Petrol prices rise by 60% following the government's decision to remove fuel subsidies. 2001 April - Ghana accepts debt relief under a scheme designed by the World Bank and the IMF. May 26 - 126 people are killed at the Accra Sports staduim in a soccer match June - Government scraps public holiday celebrating Rawling's military coup in an effort to wipe out the legacy of his rule. Thousands march in Accra to protest against statement by Rawlings that army may turn against government. June - Floods hit Accra causing 10 deaths and 100,000 to flee their homes.

Early European Contact and the Slave Trade

When the first Europeans arrived in the late fifteenth century, many inhabitants of the Gold Coast area were striving to consolidate their newly acquired territories and to settle into a secure and permanent environment. Several immigrant groups had yet to establish firm ascendancy over earlier occupants of their territories, and considerable displacement and secondary migrations were in progress. Ivor Wilks, a leading historian of Ghana, observed that Akan purchases of slaves from Portuguese traders operating from the Congo region augmented the labor needed for the state formation that was characteristic of this period. Unlike the Akan groups of the interior, the major coastal groups, such as the Fante, Ewe, and Ga, were for the most part settled in their homelands.
The Portuguese were the first to arrive. By 1471, under the patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator, they had reached the area that was to become known as the Gold Coast because Europeans knew the area as the source of gold that reached Muslim North Africa by way of trade routes across the Sahara. The initial Portuguese interest in trading for gold, ivory, and pepper so increased that in 1482 the Portuguese built their first permanent trading post on the western coast of present-day Ghana. This fortress, Elmina Castle, constructed to protect Portuguese trade from European competitors and hostile Africans, still stands.
With the opening of European plantations in the New World during the 1500s, which suddenly expanded the demand for slaves in the Americas, trade in slaves soon overshadowed gold as the principal export of the area. Indeed, the west coast of Africa became the principal source of slaves for the New World. The seemingly insatiable market and the substantial profits to be gained from the slave trade attracted adventurers from all over Europe. Much of the conflict that arose among European groups on the coast and among competing African kingdoms was the result of rivalry for control of this trade.
The Portuguese position on the Gold Coast remained secure for almost a century. During that time, Lisbon leased the right to establish trading posts to individuals or companies that sought to align themselves with the local chiefs and to exchange trade goods both for rights to conduct commerce and for slaves whom the chiefs could provide. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, adventurers--first Dutch, and later English, Danish, and Swedish-- were granted licenses by their governments to trade overseas. On the Gold Coast, these European competitors built fortified trading stations and challenged the Portuguese. Sometimes they were also drawn into conflicts with local inhabitants as Europeans developed commercial alliances with local chiefs.
The principal early struggle was between the Dutch and the Portuguese. With the loss of Elmina in 1642 to the Dutch, the Portuguese left the Gold Coast permanently. The next 150 years saw kaleidoscopic change and uncertainty, marked by local conflicts and diplomatic maneuvers, during which various European powers struggled to establish or to maintain a position of dominance in the profitable trade of the Gold Coast littoral. Forts were built, abandoned, attacked, captured, sold, and exchanged, and many sites were selected at one time or another for fortified positions by contending European nations. Both the Dutch and the British formed companies to advance their African ventures and to protect their coastal establishments. The Dutch West India Company operated throughout most of the eighteenth century. The British African Company of Merchants, founded in 1750, was the successor to several earlier organizations of this type. These enterprises built and manned new installations as the companies pursued their trading activities and defended their respective jurisdictions with varying degrees of government backing. There were short-lived ventures by the Swedes and the Prussians. The Danes remained until 1850, when they withdrew from the Gold Coast. The British gained possession of all Dutch coastal forts by the last quarter of the nineteenth century, thus making them the dominant European power on the Gold Coast.
During the heyday of early European competition, slavery was an accepted social institution, and the slave trade overshadowed all other commercial activities on the West African coast. To be sure, slavery and slave trading were already firmly entrenched in many African societies before their contact with Europe. In most situations, men as well as women captured in local warfare became slaves. In general, however, slaves in African communities were often treated as junior members of the society with specific rights, and many were ultimately absorbed into their masters' families as full members. Given traditional methods of agricultural production in Africa, slavery in Africa was quite different from that which existed in the commercial plantation environments of the New World.
Another aspect of the impact of the trans-Atlantic slave trade on Africa concerns the role of African chiefs, Muslim traders, and merchant princes in the trade. Although there is no doubt that local rulers in West Africa engaged in slaving and received certain advantages from it, some scholars have challenged the premise that traditional chiefs in the vicinity of the Gold Coast engaged in wars of expansion for the sole purpose of acquiring slaves for the export market. In the case of Asante, for example, rulers of that kingdom are known to have supplied slaves to both Muslim traders in the north and to Europeans on the coast. Even so, the Asante waged war for purposes other than simply to secure slaves. They also fought to pacify territories that in theory were under Asante control, to exact tribute payments from subordinate kingdoms, and to secure access to trade routes--particularly those that connected the interior with the coast. It is important to mention, however, that the supply of slaves to the Gold Coast was entirely in African hands. Although powerful traditional chiefs, such as the rulers of Asante, Fante, and Ahanta, were known to have engaged in the slave trade, individual African merchants such as John Kabes, John Konny, Thomas Ewusi, and a broker known only as Noi commanded large bands of armed men, many of them slaves, and engaged in various forms of commercial activities with the Europeans on the coast.
The volume of the slave trade in West Africa grew rapidly from its inception around 1500 to its peak in the eighteenth century. Philip Curtin, a leading authority on the African slave trade, estimates that roughly 6.3 million slaves were shipped from West Africa to North America and South America, about 4.5 million of that number between 1701 and 1810. Perhaps 5,000 a year were shipped from the Gold Coast alone. The demographic impact of the slave trade on West Africa was probably substantially greater than the number actually enslaved because a significant number of Africans perished during slaving raids or while in captivity awaiting transshipment. All nations with an interest in West Africa participated in the slave trade. Relations between the Europeans and the local populations were often strained, and distrust led to frequent clashes. Disease caused high losses among the Europeans engaged in the slave trade, but the profits realized from the trade continued to attract them.
The growth of anti-slavery sentiment among Europeans made slow progress against vested African and European interests that were reaping profits from the traffic. Although individual clergymen condemned the slave trade as early as the seventeenth century, major Christian denominations did little to further early efforts at abolition. The Quakers, however, publicly declared themselves against slavery as early as 1727. Later in the century, the Danes stopped trading in slaves; Sweden and the Netherlands soon followed.
The importation of slaves into the United States was outlawed in 1807. In the same year, Britain used its naval power and its diplomatic muscle to outlaw trade in slaves by its citizens and to begin a campaign to stop the international trade in slaves. These efforts, however, were not successful until the 1860s because of the continued demand for plantation labor in the New World.
Because it took decades to end the trade in slaves, some historians doubt that the humanitarian impulse inspired the abolitionist movement. According to historian Walter Rodney, for example, Europe abolished the trans-Atlantic slave trade only because its profitability was undermined by the Industrial Revolution. Rodney argues that mass unemployment caused by the new industrial machinery, the need for new raw materials, and European competition for markets for finished goods are the real factors that brought an end to the trade in human cargo and the beginning of competition for colonial territories in Africa. Other scholars, however, disagree with Rodney, arguing that humanitarian concerns as well as social and economic factors were instrumental in ending the African slave trade.

Delightful DC Kwakye Quotes

Before Kwame Kwakye come DC all Oda water Milo (meaning before Kwame Kwakye became DC Oda water was dirty and looked like Milo - the cocoa drink)
If You Come To Ewisa, First House Dont Enter, Second House Dont Enter, Third House Enter Mine
My people too much of eyes open is eyes close
Since Osagyefo cannot division himself into twice, he has disappointed me to come and open this pipe. Now pipe open, water come, people drink, it can cook, it can wash, it can do nothing at all.
"If not Kwame Nkrumah, then me I am the who? All of you, you are the where?"
The time Dr. Kwame Nkrumah took me to abroad river subin was nkakranation. But now see saw whe, whe ne beuatiful ne, ne feefe whe ne progress ne, ne nkosoa.
D C Kwakye, do you have children?. Ans: No, because I'm a man, only women give birth.
Ques: DC Kwakye have you come across General Afrifa Ans; Yes, I just across Africa
"What I don't like most is promise and failure."
I stand in the foot of Osagefo Dr kwame Nkrumah
"I DC Kwakye Thank you for inviting me to open your new water project, now open your pipe, pipe open, ta, ta, ta, ta, ta !!!!!!!!!!!! "
"Hon Kwame Kwakye, what is your occupation?" Ans: "I occupy the whole of Akyem Oda district"
Q: "And what is your mission here?" Ans: "I'm a Roman Catholic"
"Because of my gynebeality, people are working myself mathematics". Meaning in twi-- enam me gyena bea nti nu nkrofu bu me hu akonta.
"From Akim-Oda to Kraboa coal tar Meaa me botom"
"Today the Ghana flag will flew"
"You Akim Oda students you say you are on stroke"
"Hon Kwame Kwakye, what is your motto?" "I don't have a motor, I have a mercedes benz car"
D.C. Kwakye in Court.
Welcome D.C. Kwakye Ans. Welcome D.C. Kwame Kwakyes.
Ques. Are you going to speak English or Vernacular ? Ans. Am to speak English becos am Englishman. Do you see me wearing my coat, in my trouser, my shoe and in my tie? ( Meaning he was dressed like an Englishman ) As the car burn the corf na etua mu.......
The whole of Akyem Oda am burglar...( meaning he is popular )
A meeting was called and DC Kwame Kwakye could not get there on time. So doors were shut and the meeting began. During the course of the meeting there was a Knock at the door. Visitor: KNOCK, KNOCK... Chairperson: Who is that? VISITOR: THE LATE DC KWAME KWAKYE. Drop us email webmaster if u have some more

Pre-Colonial Period--Ghana

By the end of the 16th Century, most ethnic groups constituting the modern Ghanaian population had settled in their present locations. Archaeological remains found in the coastal zone indicate that the area has been inhabited since the early Bronze Age (ca. 4000 B.C.), but these societies, based on fishing in the extensive lagoons and rivers, left few traces. Archaeological work also suggests that central Ghana north of the forest zone was inhabited as early as 3,000 to 4,000 years ago. Oral history and other sources suggest that the ancestors of some of Ghana's residents entered this area at least as early as the tenth century A.D. and that migration from the north and east continued thereafter. These migrations resulted in part from the formation and disintegration of a series of large states in the western Sudan (the region north of modern Ghana drained by the Niger River). Prominent among these Sudanic states was the Soninke Kingdom of Ancient Ghana. Strictly speaking, Ghana was the title of the King, but the Arabs, who left records of the Kingdom, applied the term to the King, the capital, and the state. The 9th Century Arab writer, Al Yaqubi, described ancient Ghana as one of the three most organised states in the region (the others being Gao and Kanem in the central Sudan). Its rulers were renowned for their wealth in gold, the opulence of their courts, and their warrior-hunting skills. They were also masters of the trade in gold, which drew North African merchants to the western Sudan. The military achievements of these and later western Sudanic rulers and their control over the region's gold mines constituted the nexus of their historical relations with merchants and rulers of North Africa and the Mediterranean. Ghana succumbed to attacks by its neighbours in the eleventh century, but its name and reputation endured. In 1957 when the leaders of the former British colony of the Gold Coast sought an appropriate name for their newly independent state, the first black African nation to gain its independence from colonial rule they named their new country after ancient Ghana. The choice was more than merely symbolic because modern Ghana, like its namesake, was equally famed for its wealth and trade in gold. Although none of the states of the western Sudan controlled territories in the area that is modern Ghana, several small Kingdoms that later developed in the north of the country were ruled by nobles believed to have emigrated from that region. The trans-Saharan trade that contributed to the expansion of Kingdoms in the western Sudan also led to the development of contacts with regions in northern modern Ghana and in the forest to the south. By 13th Century, for example, the town of Jenn頩n the empire of Mali had established commercial connections with the ethnic groups in the savannah woodland areas of the northern two-thirds of the Volta Basin in modern Ghana. Jenn頍 was also the headquarters of the Dyula, Muslim traders who dealt with the ancestors of the Akan-speaking peoples who occupy most of the southern half of the country. The growth of trade stimulated the development of early Akan states located on the trade route to the goldfields in the forest zone of the south. The forest itself was thinly populated, but Akan speaking peoples began to move into it toward the end of the 15th Century with the arrival of crops from Southeast Asia and the New World that could be adapted to forest conditions. These new crops included sorghum, bananas, and cassava. By the beginning of the 16th Century, European sources noted the existence of the gold rich states of Akan and Twifu in the Ofin River Valley. Also in the same period, some of the Mande who had stimulated the development of states in what is now northern Nigeria (the Hausa states and those of the Lake Chad area), moved south-westward and imposed themselves on many of the indigenous peoples of the northern half of modern Ghana and of Burkina Faso (Burkina, formerly Upper Volta), founding the states of Dagomba and Mamprusi. The Mande also influenced the rise of the Gonja state. It seems clear from oral traditions as well as from archaeological evidence that the Mole-Dagbane states of Mamprusi, Dagomba, and Gonja, as well as the Mossi states of Yatenga and Wagadugu, were among the earliest Kingdoms to emerge in modern Ghana, being well established by the close of the 16th Century. The Mossi and Gonja rulers came to speak the languages of the people they dominated. In general, however, members of the ruling class retained their traditions, and even today some of them can recite accounts of their northern origins. Although the rulers themselves were not usually Muslims, they either brought with them or welcomed Muslims as scribes and medicine men, and Muslims also played a significant role in the trade that linked southern with northern Ghana. As a result of their presence, Islam substantially influenced the north. Muslim influence, spread by the activities of merchants and clerics, has been recorded even among the Asante to the south. Although most Ghanaians retained their traditional beliefs, the Muslims brought with them certain skills, including writing, and introduced certain beliefs and practices that became part of the culture of the peoples among whom they settled
In the broad belt of rugged country between the northern boundaries of the Muslim-influenced states of Gonja, Mamprusi, and Dagomba and the southernmost outposts of the Mossi Kingdoms, lived a number of peoples who were not incorporated into these entities. Among these peoples were the Sisala, Kasena, Kusase, and Talensi, agriculturalists closely related to the Mossi. Rather than establishing centralised states themselves, they lived in so-called segmented societies, bound together by kinship ties and ruled by the heads of their clans. Trade between the Akan states to the south and the Mossi Kingdoms to the north flowed through their homelands, subjecting them to Islamic influence and to the depredations of these more powerful neighbours. Of the components that would later make up Ghana, the state of Asante was to have the most cohesive history and would exercise the greatest influence. The Asante are members of the Twi-speaking branch of the Akan people. The groups that came to constitute the core of the Asante confederacy moved north to settle in the vicinity of Lake Bosumtwe. Before the mid-17th Century, the Asante began an expansion under a series of militant leaders that led to the domination of surrounding peoples and to the formation of the most powerful of the states of the central forest zone. Under Chief Oti Akenten a series of successful military operations against neighbouring Akan states brought a larger surrounding territory into alliance with Asante. At the end of the 17th Century, Osei Tutu became Asantehene (King of Asante). Under Osei Tutu's rule, the confederacy of Asante states was transformed into an empire with its capital at Kumasi. Political and military consolidation ensued, resulting in firmly established centralised authority. Osei Tutu was strongly influenced by the high priest, Anokye, who, tradition asserts, caused a stool of gold to descend from the sky to seal the union of Asante states. Stools already functioned as traditional symbols of chieftainship, but the Golden Stool of Asante represented the united spirit of all the allied states and established a dual allegiance that superimposed the confederacy over the individual component states. The Golden Stool remains a respected national symbol of the traditional past and figures extensively in Asante ritual. Osei Tutu permitted newly conquered territories that joined the confederation to retain their own customs and Chiefs, who were given seats on the Asante state council. Osei Tutu's gesture made the process relatively easy and non-disruptive, because most of the earlier conquests had subjugated other Akan peoples. Within the Asante portions of the confederacy, each minor state continued to exercise internal self-rule, and its Chief jealously guarded the state's prerogatives against encroachment by the central authority. A strong unity developed, however, as the various communities subordinated their individual interests to central authority in matters of national concern. By the mid-18th Century, Asante was a highly organised state. The wars of expansion that brought the northern states of Mamprusi, Dagomba, and Gonja under Asante influence were won during the reign of Asantehene Opoku Ware I successor to Osei Tutu. By the 1820s, successive rulers had extended Asante boundaries southward. Although the northern expansions linked Asante with trade networks across the desert and in Hausaland to the east, movements into the south brought the Asante into contact, sometimes antagonistic, with the coastal Fante, Ga-Adangbe, and Ewe people, as well as with the various European merchants whose fortresses dotted the Gold Coast

Empire of Ancient Ghana

Ghana Flag Pictures, Images and Photos
Ancient Ghana derived power and wealth from gold and the introduction of the camel during the Trans-Saharan trade increased the quantity of goods that were transported. Majority of the knowledge of Ghana comes from the Arab writers. Al-Hamdani, for example, describes Ghana as having the richest gold mines on earth. These mines were situated at Bambuk, on the upper Senegal river. The Soninke people also sold slaves, salt and copper in exchange for textiles, beads and finished goods. They built their capital city, Kumbi Saleh, right on the edge of the Sahara and the city quickly became the most dynamic and important southern terminus of the Saharan trade routes. Kumbi Saleh became the focus of all trade, with a systematic form of taxation. Later on Audaghust became another commercial centre.The wealth of ancient Ghana is mythically explained in the tale of Bida, the black snake. This snake demanded an annual sacrifice in return for guaranteeing prosperity in the Kingdom, therefore each year a virgin was offered up for sacrifice, until one year, the fianc頍 (Mamadou Sarolle) of the intended victim rescued her. Feeling cheated of his sacrifice, Bida took his revenge on the region, a terrible drought took a hold of Ghana and gold mining began to decline. There is evidence found by archaeologists that confirms elements of the story, showing that until the 12th Century, sheep, cows and even goats were abundant in the region.The route taken by traders of the Maghreb to Ghana started in North Africa in Tahert, coming down through Sjilmasa in Southern Morocco. From there the trail went south and inland, running parallel with the coast, then round to the south-east through Awdaghust and ending up in Kumbi Saleh - the royal town of Ancient Ghana. Inevitably the traders brought Islam with them. The Islamic community at Kumbi Saleh remained a separate community quite a distance away from the King's palace. It had its own mosques and schools, but the King retained traditional beliefs. He drew on the bookkeeping and literary skills of Muslim scholars to help run the administration of the territory. The state of Takrur to the west had already adopted Islam as its official religion and established closer trading ties with North Africa.There were numerous reasons for the decline of Ghana. The King lost his trading monopoly, at the same time drought began and had a long-term effect on the land and its ability to sustain cattle and cultivation. Within the Arab tradition, there is the knowledge that the Almoravid Muslims came from North Africa and invaded Ghana. Other interpretations are that the Almoravid influence was gradual and did not involve any form of military takeover.In the 11th and 12th Century, new gold fields began to be mined at Bure (modern Guinea) out of commercial Ghana and new trade routes were opening up further east. Ghana then became the target of attacks by the Sosso ruler, Sumanguru. From this conflict in 1235 came the Malinke people under a new dynamic ruler, Sundiata Keita and soon became eclipsed by the Mali Empire of Sundiata.


Wednesday, December 10, 2008

The African-American Migration Experience

In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience presents a new interpretation of African-American history, one that focuses on the self-motivated activities of peoples of African descent to remake themselves and their worlds. Of the thirteen defining migrations that formed and transformed African America, only the transatlantic slave trade and the domestic slave trades were coerced, the eleven others were voluntary movements of resourceful and creative men and women, risk-takers in an exploitative and hostile environment. Their survival skills, efficient networks, and dynamic culture enabled them to thrive and spread, and to be at the very core of the settlement and development of the Americas. Their hopeful journeys changed not only their world and the fabric of the African Diaspora but also the Western Hemisphere.
These journeys did not originate in the east with the1619 arrival of Africans in Jamestown, Virginia, as is commonly believed, but almost a century earlier, further south. Indeed, African-American history starts in the 1500s with the first Africans coming from Mexico and the Caribbean to the Spanish territories of Florida, Texas, and other parts of the South. And as early as 1526, Africans rebelled and ran away in South Carolina.
These precursors were followed by successive generations of runaways who did not confine themselves to running North and to Canada on the Underground Railroad as traditional history teaches us. With pragmatism and efficiency, they also moved south to Mexico, or took their canoes to the Bahamas. They left the plantations and settled, secretly, in the urban centers of the South or found refuge in the swamps and among Native populations.

The new interpretation of African-American history that we present here also puts the Caribbean, Haitian, and contemporary African immigrations into the unfolding of the African-American migration experience. Peoples of the African Diaspora have contributed immensely to the fabric of African America and the nation. They too, with their specificities, are part of the African-American experience. Whether they came from Saint Domingue in 1791 and settled in Louisiana, left the Bahamas in the nineteenth century to develop Miami and Key West, Florida, or recently moved from Nigeria to Texas.

Check out the Shomberg site:



Remembering Adam Clayton Powell Jr.

Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Pictures, Images and Photos

It is my destinct honor to post this great lion for Civil Rights: Mr. Powell would have turned 100 yrs old on Saturday November 29. He was a voice that roar in the political world. I feel we should never forget the sacrifices this great man and so many of our warriors that layed the work. “He was the blueprint for what all black elected officials should be: he was bold and passionate.”
Adam Clayton Powell Jr. was best known in his role as chairman of the House Committee on Education and Labor. He was a leading figure in passage of the backbone of the much of the social legislation of the Kennedy and Johnson presidencies.
He helped steer the passage of the minimum wage bill, the Manpower Development and Training Act, the antipoverty bill, and bills providing federal money for student loans and for public libraries.

Of course, the congressman had his troubles, and they made headlines throughout the country. He was criticized with increasing frequency for mismanagement of his committee’s finances and traveling at public expense. He spent a good deal of time outside the district and faced a series of troubles for his refusal to pay a judgment that resulted from a slander suit.
In 1970, he was defeated in the Democratic primary by an assemblyman named Charles B. Rangel, who has represented northern Manhattan in Congress ever since.


Friday, November 21, 2008

Early Paleolithic Art, Religion, Symbols, Mind

Researching the Origins of Art. Religion, and Mind
Palaeoart Representation Mode: Homo ergaster/erectus appears to have created the first intentional sculptures in stone with predominately four themes: aesthetically beautiful symmetrical bifaces (so-called 'handaxes'), representations of the female as birthgiver; the human head/profile/skull; and animals of hunt and ritual. Evidence for red ochre pigment use also appears during the EP.
Early Paleolithic, that is, Acheulian, palaeoart appears to have three distinctive chronological phases. (See argument for three divisions at Olduvai Gorge in Derek Roe 'Metrical Analysis of Handaxes and Cleavers' in M.D. Leakey with D.A. Roe. [1994]. Olduvai Gorge. Vol. 5. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: p. 204.)....Phase I: Early Acheulian (c. 1.4 MYA to 1.0 MYA).....Phase II: Middle Acheulian (c. 1.0 MYA to 500,000 BP).....Phase III: Later Acheulian (c. 500,000 to 100,000 BP)Phase I: Early Acheulian (c. 1.4 MYA to 1.0 MYA). The oldest securely dated Acheulian "biface" is dated to 1.4 million years ago (Konso-Gardula, Ethiopia). Using examples from Peninj, West Natron, Tanzania (c. 1.4 MYA) and Olduvai Gorge, Upper Bed II (c. 1.15-1.2 MYA), Wynn [Wynn, T. (1989). The Evolution of Spatial Intelligence] has analyzed the topological and projective concepts used to fashion early handaxes, including constant interval, mirror symmetry reversal, and sense of overall shape of the artifact. I would add that the artist appears to use a 2x4-term conceptual matrix with top and bottom of object either pointed/rounded and either trimmed/natural and/or with left and right side curved either concave/convex and/or either curvilinear/rectilinear. Using this matrix all the early Acheulian tool shapes can be generated, including disks, spheroids, biface ('handaxe' and 'cleaver'), scraper, awl and cleaver. In sum, this early phase has a characteristic two-dimensional symmetry modeling that uses pairs of similar and opposite elemental shapes (or shape-gestures) for overall object shaping.I have suggested that the breakthrough to Oldowan stone tools had the capacity to function as a symbol for a corresponding breakthrough to consciousness of the human soul as 'the core sustaining essence' of the self in its relationships. (See summary of Oldowan mind and my essay on the Oldowan mind.) It appears that during the Early Acheulian this Oldowan symbolism was augmented by new symbolic values, the most prominant being: "the renewal, restoration and reparation of the core". I derive this signification by reflecting on the Acheulian process of tool-making. From a boulder (i.e., core) the knapper removed a large flake ('blank') and flaked it into a biface ('handaxe' and 'cleaver' forms). This was used as a core from which flakes were removed to be used as cutting tools, and/or the core was flaked to make a more symmetrically shaped core. In short, a flake blank taken from a core was, in its turn, flaked to create a new 'core'. In this sense, the 'core' was renewed. While at first glance trivial, this appears to have had no small religious and psychological significance. The tool-making process could signify 'the renewal of the core.' The 'renewal of the core' could have expressed psychological and spiritual renewal of the 'sustaining and nurturing core essence' (a fundamental spiritual theme derived from the earlier Oldowan symbolism). It also could re-presence, and be a token of, the reestablishing of symmetry relations among peoples, the renewal of cooperation, mutuality, and exchange. Thus, the early bifaces could have served as a vehicle for the expression of reparation, a foundational theme in interpersonal conflict healing. It could have further expressed not only aesthetic balance, but the balance and harmony of the psyche's (soul's) well-being. It would have signified 'restoration and reparation of the core essence in renewed balance and wholeness'. In this light it may be seen how even the earliest bifaces offered their makers and users a selective advantage in evolution, or at least were an expression of that advantage. (For more details on this interpretation see Harrod, J. Notes Toward an Early Acheulian Stone Tools Logic Model: Constitutive Operations and Analogies of the Soul)Phase II: Middle Acheulian (c. 1.0 MYA to 500,000 BP).. Three-dimensionally symmetric bifaces (handaxes) reflect a Euclidean, projective sense of space [Wynn, T. (1989). The Evolution of Spatial Intelligence]. This sense appears to emerge between 1 million and 600,000 years ago. Representative of this subphase are bifaces from African sites such as Olorgesailie, Kenya (c. 750,000-999,000 MYA) and Olduvai Gorge Bed IV (600,000-800,000 BP); Near Eastern sites such as Joub Jannine II (800-900,000 BP), Gesher Benot Ya'akov (780,000 BP) and Latamne (500-700,000 BP); and the European 'Abbevillian' style (c. 600,000 BP). In addition to the new 3-D sense of space, in comparison to the Early Acheulian, the Middle Acheulians appear to standardize biface manufacture to two predominant biface types, with a pair of type--lanceolate and pick or cordiform and cleaver--characterizing the Near Eastern and African traditions respectively. During this period the percentage of cleavers and bifaces in a given tool assemblage increases and there are sometimes great numbers at a single location. Weight range is variable and some bifaces are quite heavy, others tiny, seemingly beyond any utilitarian function. Microwear studies indicate that while some bifaces were used in the same way as flakes, i.e., for butchery, meat-cutting, woodworking and cutting of plants, others showed no use at all.I propose that to the Middle Acheulians used biface pairings to symbolize and presence the reparation and restoration of two kinds of core-essence conceived as gesture-movements. One was embodied and ‘sheath-like’, transformative like birthgiving and dying. It was energized through intercourse, sexual intercourse, symbolic exchange, creative intercourse, and intercourse with the living beings of the biosphere. The other was spirit and ‘vehicle-like’, an invisible force of aliveness, an animating force or spirit, the strength of which could wax or wane, mature or wither. It was the source of health and well-being. These two kinds of transcendent spiritual forces were presenced through the stone knappers artistic visualization and shaping in three-dimensional space.Residing in this new three-dimensional Euclidean space, these two energies may have been viewed as a kind of otherworldly being 'in another dimension'. One was a transcendent spirit-power, perhaps called ‘the One Who Presides Over the Processes of Birth and Death and Rebirth.’ The other was a transcendent spirit-power, perhaps called ‘the One Who Gives Us Spirit Power.’ This would have been the first visualization of ‘spiritual’ or ‘supernatural’ beings—‘spiritual’ also implying ‘abstract’ since these spirits were symbolized in geometric shaped gesture-movements. Thus, the Middle Acheulians would have been the initiators of two of the most fundamental characteristics found in every Homo sapiens sapiens religion, belief in ‘supernatural beings’ and belief in a process of death and rebirth (after Spiro and Eliade). If such revelations were encoded in bifaces over 800,000 years ago, we must radically rethink the origins of religion, mind and psyche. (For more details on this interpretation see Harrod, J. Notes on Middle Acheulian Spirituality: Stone Tool Logic Structures and Analogies of the Soul)Phase III: Later Acheulian Phase (500,000 to 100,000 BP). Around 500,000 years ago in Africa, the Near East, Europe and elsewhere, there emerges a further refinement in biface workmanship as indicated by extensive 'soft hammer' technique, increased counts of flake scars and decreased relative thickness. During this period one finds beautiful masterpieces of mirror symmetry in 3-D Euclidean projective space. Correspondingly, during the Later Acheulian the symbolic, spiritual nature of the biface is even more self-evident. For instance, at European sites there appears to be a standardization to one biface type ('handaxe') for symbolic purposes and there is convincing evidence of representational sculptures in flint and other materials. These Later Acheulian sculptures appear to have four typical symbolic themes:
a female figure symbolizing a divine 'Giver of Life' ('Birthgiver' and perhaps also 'Death-Giver', a thematic drawing upon meanings previously encoded in the Middle Acheulian Abbevillian type biface
the human head in 3-D or profile, or as a skull
animals, especially carnivore predators and herbivore prey of the hunt
the mirror symmetric, aesthetically pleasing biface (so-called 'handaxe') which appears to recapitulate significations of the Middle Acheulian pick and cleaver, i.e., 'spirit in its soaring and grounding qualities'; 'passageway to the spirit world'; and a divinity of this spirit
Such a symbol system would have been capable of symbolizing the passage between the worlds; the process of passage itself; the creative process as both symmetry-making, birthing, and the releasing of life-force; and the Way as an ultimate spiritual concept. The Later Acheulian symbol system had the capacity to articulate and promote basic shamanic healing, mortuary and rebirthing practices.The most securely dated examples of Later Acheulian figurative art are the Tan Tan (Morocco) figurine, gender indeterminate (Acheulian, 300-500,000 BP) and the Berekhat Ram (Israel) female figurine (Acheulian, 233,000-470,000 BP). In Northwestern Europe Later Acheulian sculptures that exemplify all four symbolic themes have been documented in publications of the journal Archaeologische Berichten (Elst, Netherlands) over the last decade or two, as well as in prior publications of unheralded pioneers such as Walther Matthis (Hamburg-Wittenbergen site, Hamburg, GR). The dating of the Northwest European figurines is by geological profile and tool typology.Toward the end of Phase III artists appear to combine in one object two or more of the four basic EP symbolic themes. Evidently, there is now a sophisticated consciousness of, and ability to manipulate the EP religious symbol system. An early example is the combination handaxe+fossil 'womb'+possible profile on a handaxe from Swanscombe, England (c. 400,000 BP). Examples increase in frequency over the course of Phase III and continue into the Middle and Upper Paleolithic. Typical late Phase III examples are handaxe+two possible profiles (Wolvercote, 200,000 BP); handaxe+fossil 'womb' (West Tofts, Norfolk, 100,000 BP?); and handaxe+'womb'+'head' (Cys-la-Commune, Aisne, 100,000 BP). The increasing frequency of combination art during the Later Acheulian seems to parallel the contemporaneous evolution of Middle Paleolithic art and protolanguage. Middle Paleolithic art and protolanguage utilizes combinations and aggregations of motifs.The Biface Symbol System and Evolutionary Advantage. What are the possible evolutionary benefits of the Early Paleolithic biface throughout its million and half year tradition? Since these bifaces reflect a new cognitive sense of symmetry, one of their meaning-functions could have been as symbols of symmetry and cooperation among social groups and the 'reparation of that symmetry'. The selective advantage of the handaxe would have been its symbolic power to facilitate cooperation and alliances and reduce conspecific competition and conflict. If so, it would have helped resolve the so-called "group size crisis" postulated by Aiello and Dunbar (see below). In addition, the bifacial handaxe along with red ochre use might have had a display function in sexual selection [after Kohn, M. and Mithen, S. (1999). Handaxes: products of sexual selection. Antiquity 73:518-26]. The addition of a sculptural repertoire to the biface ('handaxe') could have further augmented these benefits. For instance the female figurines may have represented a female divinity who was not only the One Who Presides Over the Passage into Life and into Death, but also an ancestral mother of 'the human family as one family' and thus a mediator of intergroup conflict. In combination with symbols of the human head, sacred animals, and the pure geometry of the biface, this female creatrix ('goddess') had the power to preside over and promote the interdependence and harmony of all living things.
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In addition to the biface symbol system, there is Early Acheulian evidence for red ochre mining and use. This appears as early as Wonderwork Cave, South Africa, 900,000-800,000 BP. Later Acheulian instances of striated or abraded (used) hematite include
Terra Amata, FR (ESR 380,000±80,000 BP) -- 77 pieces of hematite
Ambrona, Spain (300-400,000 BP) -- red siltstone, rubbed?
Hungsi, India (?300,000 BP) -- hematite pebbles, 1 striated
Achenheim, FR (250,000 BP) -- 1 hematite, rubbed
Maastricht-Belvedere, NL (285,000 BP) -- red stains in soil
Beçov, CZ (?220,000 BP) -- 1 hematite, striated, ochre powder
Pleistocene beads of ostrich eggshell (El Greifa E, c. 200,000 BP); and perforated wolf incisor (Repolusthöle, Austria, c. 300,000 BP) indicate Later Acheulian technical ability and might have been used for pendants or necklaces, which also may have had a symbolic value.The collection of exotic objects, which may have had symbolic uses, continues from the Oldowan, for example: Quartz crystals (Zhoukoudian, China; Acheulian level, Gudenus Cave, Austria; Lower Acheulian level, Singi Talav, India; Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel); scraper with echinoid cast (Saint-Just-des-Marais, France); polished wooden plank (Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel).There is also evidence for defleshing of the dead, e.g. Bodo, Ethiopia, 550-640,000 BP; Gran Dolina (TD 6), 780,000-990,000 BP. This may indicate ritual treatment of the skull or ritual cannibalism perhaps in the context of mortuary rites. Sima de los Huesos ("Pit of Bones"), 350-500,000 BP, contains one handaxe but no other tools, possibly also evidence of mortuary ritual.Signs Representation Mode: Archaeological evidence of the first human marking ('sign') systems consist of various kinds of engraved markings on bone, including single or iterated strokes, rays or fans of strokes, forked or 'Y' strokes, and crosshatch or netlike patterns of lines. Examples include an elephantid vertebra engraved with (or with natural) fan of seven radiating lines and four undulating lines, which may have been intended as a funnel-shape (Stranská Skála 600,000-700,000 BP); seven bone, ivory, and quartzite objects variously engraved with multiple parallel, radiating, and crossed strokes, paired arcs, arcuate pattern, and crosshatching rectangular pattern with rays or chevrons and parallel strokes (Bilzingsleben 300-350,000 BP). A buried rock fragment engraved with one cupule and a long meander groove, Auditorium Cave, Bhimbetka, Acheulian, >300,000 BP. These examples suggest iterative and tactile (haptic) components of 'meaning'. At Hamburg-Wittenbergen, 200,000 BP, a handaxe is engraved with a schematic head and in the womb area nested 'chevrons' and a 'zigzag' and thus exemplifies the combination and aggregation of thematic elements in a single object that occurs in the latter part of Phase III. Possible, unconfirmed evidence for marking signs also appear in the literature on Grotte de l'Observatoire, France, Acheulian, early Riss -- a lattice of vertical line and crossing lines on a biface; Port-Launay en Ecouflant, Maine-et-Loire, France, Acheulian, early Riss -- a bone engraved with short parallel strokes.Mental Model or Template of Mind: 'Conceptual-Meaning Gesture Modeling'. During the Acheulian Early Paleolithic Period we see the first "meaning systems' encoded in symbolic 'representations' or more precisely in symbolic 'gesture-movements' which 'presenced' their meaning. Extent encodings are in stone (handaxe, sculptures, engravings of marking signs). They were probably also employed in body-painting. These meaning systems likely had both a social function and a depth psychological function. If such meaning systems indeed existed, then it follows that 'meaning' and 'reference' precede language systems. Symbolic modes appear to have included icon and metaphor, activating 'reference' and 'fetish meaning'. Cognitively speaking one could infer a mental model consisting of a neural 'symbolic memory controller' + 'external storage' [after Donald, M. (1991) Origins of the modern mind: Three stages in the evolution of culture and cognition. Cambridge: Harvard University]. One can also infer expanded social intelligence to manage interspecific conflict and resolve the 'group size crisis' posited by Aiello and Dunbar (1993) [Aiello, L and Dunbar, R. (1993). Neocortex size, group size and the evolution of language, Current Anthropology 34:184-193]. Possibly new distributive + new artistic intelligence modules evolve [after Mithen, S. (1996) The prehistory of mind: The cognitive origins of art, religion, and science. London: Thames and Hudson]. Drawing on the Piagetian theory of child development of intelligence, Early Acheulian bifaces exhibit 'preoperations B' and Middle Acheulian bifaces (e.g., Olduvai Bed IV) exhibit early 'concrete operations' [Wynn, T. (1989). The evolution of spatial competence. Chicago: University of Illinois; Wynn T. (1996) The evolution of tools and symbolic behavior. In A. Lock and C. Peters (eds.), Handbook of human symbolic evolution. Oxford: Clarendon]. Presumably, Phase III handaxes would represent a later stage of 'concrete operations'.