Thursday, January 29, 2009

Dr. Barashango: Blacks in the Bible*

We wouldn't know anything about Kemet or Ethiopia truth's if he had not been for the Bible.
This was indeed the first introduction we had to it. The book can give us some history, Harriet tubman have found ways to use it, M.L.K. used it many have used the knowledge.

  • Lesson 1- The african origins of the bible.
Doc 1*- Who wrote the bible?-
The bible originated in ancient Egypt. Where the population where Aristole was...the jews received all of their agriculture knowledge. Our knowledge is apparently older than the hebrews.
  • Question? Where is Egypt? In Asia? In Africa?

We have been led to believe that Egypt isn't in Africa but Asia. Another distortion.

"Alkebilan"- is the oldest name known so far....and we owe this info to Dr. Ben and Marcus Garvey.

  • Africa is a latin term. given by the romans.
Let's deal with the right term for Egypt.
  • Khemet-Kemet--- is the original name for Egypt...but when the greeks began to transform our info...they couldn't decipher.
  • When you look at have "Chemistry" this one word has alot of power in it.
  • Most of all Egyptian gods and goddess were scientific symbols.......
  • Europeans couldn't properly decipher what it was all about.
  • They represented forces of nature.
  • Divine intelligence. Through every item their is an intelligence to represent it.
  • Which keeps the whole planet together.

Hieroglyphics- meaning "The Holy Writings* greek origins.

Ref: black man in denied.---destruction of black civilization.

Wednesday, January 28, 2009

Is African America really a Nationality? Are you a tree without roots?

If so do we have a African American flag?
If we as Africans, don't know who they are , can we claim a nation?
Can you see the significance in Knowingthyself?

Open Your Mind!

  • What is it about the importance of nationality?
  • Are you a tree without roots?
  • Identity....Is the bottom line.

If you don't know your nationality, you don't know who you are and where you came from.
If you don't love your people, how can you inspire your people?
  • Is Black the best term way to interpret our nationality....have we really been reduced to just a color....does this define us?
  • Why do we summit to what labels are given to define who and what we are?
The fact is the more you know about your nationality the more you know about your people.
Our contributions, with knowing these thing we would be like a tree firmly planted in season.
If you don't know where you came from , you don't where your going.

Hotep...let's learn more about ourselves*

Fort Jesus-Kenya-Explanation, fact and history

Fort Jesus, Kenya - Explanation, Facts And History
Tell Me About The History of Fort Jesus Located in Mombasa Old Town Port, Kenya?
The Portuguese built Fort Jesus, Mombasa, at the end of the sixteenth century to secure their position on the coast of East Africa. For a hundred years their northern headquarters had been the unfortified 'factory' or settlement at Malindi. However, the appearance of Turkish ships in the Indian Ocean, and the persistent hostility of the Swahili town of Mombasa convinced them that they could not allow the best harbor of the coast to become a base for their enemies. At this time Portugal was part of the possessions of the King of Spain, and Fort Jesus was one of the fortresses with which the Spanish crown attempted to maintain its global empire.The site chosen was a coral ridge at the entrance to the harbor, about a mile from the old Swahili and Arab town. The original ramparts on the landward sides were 2X2 meters wide, with a parapet walk and firing step raised about 1 meter above the level of the central court.
On the seaward side there has been much rebuilding and the original form of the outer walls is uncertain. In the bastion of S. Matias there was a low curb on which a wall with gun ports was later built.The walls of coral blocks raised about 13 meters above the bottom of the ditch. Later, walls were built on top of the old parapets so that another 3 meters increased the height. The lower part of the defenses, as seen from the outside, is of solid coral, which was cut back to the line of the walls. On the west, considerable excavation was necessary to isolate the Fort from the ground behind it, and the work was never finished. The ditch varied in width from as much as 12 meters on the north to 3 meters beside, the southwest bastion. The Fort could not be undermined, and before the invention of explosive shells could only have been stormed with heavy casualties.An Italian architect and engineer, Joao Batista Cairato, the leading architect of the Portuguese in India, designed Fort Jesus. The plan consists of a central court with oreillons or bastions at the four corners and a rectangular projection facing the sea, in all covering an area of about two acres.The most prominent features of the plan are the reentrant angles of the two landward bastions, in which cannon were placed to sweep the face of the opposite bastion. The main gate was in the lee of the northeast bastion, but there were two passages on the seaward side leading to the outwork or couraca and a third in the southeast bastion, also facing the sea. It was built by the last Captain of Malindi and the first Captain of Mombasa, Mateus Mendes de Vasconcelos, and was dedicated on the 11th April 1593. The only major additions have been the elliptical bastion and the outer gate, which were erected after the Arab revolt of 1631. Battlements and parapets have been added or modified more than once, but Fort Jesus retains its late sixteenth century fortress plan and is one of the finest examples of its class.The earliest known plan is in a manuscript atlas by Manuel Godinho de Heredia, dated 1610, which shows the original layout of the buildings inside the Fort. These consisted of barrack rooms on the north and south sides, guardrooms leading back from the main gate, and square buildings in the middle of the court, one of which must be the cistern. Excavations where the museum and public lavatories now stand uncovered the lowest courses of the barrack walls, but the floors had been re-laid. The base of the pillar carrying the arms of Portugal was found inside the angle tower where the projection joins the northeast bastion. The steps on the plan are the Passage of the Arches disappearing under a building which may be the structure shown on the Rezende plan The guns facing the sea in the rectangular projection are in the outwor k outside the main walls of the Fort.On the 16th August 1631, the Arab Sultan of Mombasa, called by the Portuguese Dom Jeronimo Chingulia, entered the Fort with a band of followers through the Passage of the Arches. He killed the Captain, Pedro Leitao de Gamboa, and then gave the signal to his followers outside the Fort to set fire to the Portuguese houses in the town. There was no resistance and in the course of the next two weeks all the Portuguese were killed. Dom Jeronimo, now Muhammad Yusif bin Hassan once more, beat off an attempt to retake the Fort without much trouble. Early in the following year, finding life with his people as distasteful as it had been with the Portuguese, he sailed away in a captured galleon and became a pirate. The Portuguese captain-elect, Pedro Rodrigues Botelho who had been waiting in Zanzibar, then reoccupied the Fort.New works carried out in the years before the revolt consisted of the construction of a cavalier in S. Alberto and a platform around the apex and west side of S. Mateus. Dom Jeronimo is said to have destroyed the Fort before he departed, but of this there has been no archaeological evidence.The next two captains, Pedro Rodrigues Botelho and Francisco de Seixas Cabreira, carried out considerable works of improvement. An outer gate was added, covered by an elliptical bastion; the bastions were raised to the level of the old parapet and new parapets were built on top of them; curtain walls were constructed between the bastions. A gun platform was built along the sea front of S. Mateus, also a wall over the curb of S. Matias, and semicircular towers in the angles where S. Mateus and S. Matias join the rectangular projection. The Rezende plan shows the new main gate, the corner towers and the building inside the Fort with pent roofs of Spanish tiles, which have been copied in the new buildings.In 1640 Portugal became once more independent and solely responsible for the protection of her worldwide interests.The great siege of Fort Jesus by the Oman Arabs began on the 13th March 1696, and ended on the 13th December 1698. The original garrison had consisted of the Captain, Joao Rodrigues Leao, some fifty men with their women and children, and about 1,500 loyal Swahili from Kilifi, Malindi and Faza. The Captain died in October and was succeeded by Antonio Mogo de Mello. On Christmas Day, 1696, when the Fort was about to fall, it was reinforced from Goa, but the reinforcements brought plague with them. On 20th July 1697, the Arabs attempted to take it by storm but were beaten off by the four surviving Portuguese, twenty-two African men (seventeen of whom were Bajuni) and fifty African women. By the end of August, all the Portuguese, except a teenage boy, were dead and Bwana Daud, a cousin of the Sheikh of Faza, held the Fort. In September the frigate, which had brought the reinforcements, was called in on its way back from Mozambique to Goa. It was wrecked on the shoal opposite the Fort and the crew became the garrison. The general, Luis de Mello de Sampaiom, soon died but his successor, Joseph Pereira de Brito, drove the Arabs from the surrounding of the Fort. In December a new garrison of a hundred men under Leandro Barbosa Soutomaior was landed, and the crew of the frigate with Bwana Daud and his followers were taken to Goa. But plague stayed and by the middle of December 1698, only the Captain, eight Portuguese soldiers, three Indians, two African women and an African boy remained alive. The Fort was scaled during the night of 12th December, near the gate in S. Mateus, but the Portuguese held out in the cavalier bastion until seven in the morning of the following day. Then the Captain was killed and the survivors surrendered, but later one of them blew himself up with many Arabs in the powder magazine over the gate, where he said gold had been hidden. A few days later the relief ship arrived from Goa, saw the red flag of Oman flying over the Fort and sailed on to Mozambique.The state of the Fort during the great siege can only be conjectured from the Rezende plan of 1636 and from two more plans, one by Don Alvaro "Marquis of Cienfuegos", the other by Engineer Colonel Jose Lopes de Sa, made during the brief reoccupation of 1728-1729. In the Cienfuegos plan the names of all the bastions are changed, while in the Lopes de Sa plan the only new name is S. Antonio for the northeast bastion, formerly S. Matias.During the siege the outer walls were badly damaged. The rooms on the seaward side of the Captain's House were not rebuilt, but filled in to make a high gun platform above the outwork. On the Lopes de Sa plan no structures are shown in this part of the Fort, but the portico outside the Captain's House, later the Audience Room of the Mazrui, must have been in existence. The Passage of the Arches is marked, but not the gate in S. Mateus, although a sunken court with the 'Provisions Store' is shown behind it. The gatehouse was rebuilt sometime during the eighteenth century. It is possible that the early eighteenth century Omani governors lived in the town and that the Fort was merely a barracks.The reoccupation of the Fort on the 16th March 1728 was a bloodless operation, the result of the happy conjunction of a Portuguese fleet, an absent Arab governor and mutinous soldiers.The new Captain, Alvaro Caetano de Mello e Castro, repaired the Fort, but no details of what he did have survived. On Palm Sunday in April 1729, there was an uprising and the Portuguese were driven from the town into the Fort. On the 26th November, when supplies were running low and an Omani fleet was expected to arrive, they capitulated. Some of the soldiers became Muslims and stayed in Mombasa; the Captain and thirty others were given two small ships to take them to Mozambique.In 1741, the Yaarubi ruling dynasty of Oman was replaced by the Abusaid and the Governor of Mombasa, Muhammad bin Othman al Mazrui, declared his independence. Five years later he was murdered in the Fort by assassins sent from Oman; his brother Ali was lowered over the walls and escaped. He appealed to an English captain, named Cook, who advised him to make scaling ladders and take the Fort by night attack. This he did, with the exception of one bastion, perhaps the cavalier bastion of the siege. Here the assassins held out until the obliging English captain landed a cannon from his ship and blew a hole in it. They surrendered and were executed, and Ali bin Othman became governor.The Mazrui ruled relatively undisturbed until the great Seyyid Said bin Sultan of Oman began to turn his attention to his African domains. In their efforts to maintain their independence the Mazrui put themselves under the protection of the British flag, and it was in a room in the Fort that the convention was signed on the 9th February 1824, which led to the first unofficial British protectorate. This was never ratified but sufficed to prolong the rule of the Mazrui. On the 25th July 1826, the British representative was withdrawn and on The 7th January 1828, Seyyid Said occupied the Fort. However, in the last days of the year his governor, Nasir bin Sulaiman, was forced by hunger to surrender to the Mazrui and was later murdered. It was not until February 1837, that the Fort was regained without fighting by the Sultan.During this period the only new constructions seem to have been the well, shown on the Lopes de Sa plan, houses on top of the cavaliers and turrets on the walls. In addition, the portico outside the Captain's House was converted into a Hall of Audience. The Portuguese buildings remained in use but became increasingly dilapidated. By the end of the century most of them had been demolished or had become palm frond huts in which lived the dependents of the Mazrui. The rubbish and latrine pits belonging to them have been found wherever there have been excavations. Captain Owen remarked in 1823 on the poor state of the defenses, which were never repaired, and the miserable buildings inside the Fort. It is uncertain where the Mazrui lived, or indeed, if they lived with their families in the Fort.During the Zanzibar period (1837-1895) the Fort was used as a barracks for the soldiers of the Sultan, which in fact meant that there was very little change. Rubbish pits and the filling of the Passage of the Arches, containing European and English china and Chinese porcelain of the nineteenth century, represent the period.In January, 1875, the commander of the Sultan's troops, Al-Akida Muhammad bin Abdulla al Bakshuwein, revolted and on the 18th January the Fort was bombarded with rockets and shells by two British men-of-war. H.M.S, Rifleman and Nassau. The British Protectorate was proclaimed on the 1st July 1895, and the Fort was converted into a prison. The huts were removed and cells were built over the stumps of the walls of the old barrack rooms. A Public Works Department plan made in 1899 shows the Fort with the Arab and new prison buildings.In May 1958, the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation made a generous donation of £30,000 for the restoration of Fort Jesus as an historical monument and the building of a museum. On the 24th October 1958 Fort Jesus was declared a National Park in the custody of the Trustees of the Kenya National Parks, and on the 29th November 1960, it was officially opened to the public. On 1st January. 1969, it was transferred from the custody of the National Parks Trustees to the Museum Trustees of Kenya.A Walk Through Fort Jesus ArchitectureStanding with one's back to the ticket office, the layout of the Main Court is very much what it was in the past. On the left, where the Museum now stands, was a line of barrack rooms, with another line on the right; in the middle are the remains of the Church, with the Cistern beside it; beyond, are two landward bastions with the cavaliers.Following the north curtain (on the right), built over the original parapet and parapet walk (restored), we pass a turret on the wall, the lower part of which is probably Portuguese and the upper part nineteenth century. The gun ports in the walls cover the two main streets of the Portuguese town.Entering the Bastion of S. Filipe, on the right are two gun ports covering the outer gate and on the left the, Cavelier Bastion of S. Antonio with an Arab house on top of it. A cavalier bastion was a raised gun position to cover ground which would otherwise be out of sight of the garrison. It was approached by a flight of steps above which is an inscription, translated as follows:"In the year 1648 Antonio da Silva de Menezes took over this fortress and finding it much damaged undertook its restoration. He made barracks for the soldiers, three storehouses and a hospital, and he ordered the construction of this cavalier bastion to be named S. Antonio."The Arab house was built in the late eighteenth century, but has been altered during the prison period when it served as the Chief Warder's house. From the top there is a fine view over old Mombasa.The inner point of the bastion projects into the ditch. It originally consisted of a platform with a parapet only on the outer face. Between the platform and the parapet of the west curtain was a gap, barred only by a wooden palisade. When the Fort was reconstructed in 1634 the gap was blocked, the bastion filled up to the level of the parapet and a new parapet, of the same type as the old, made over it. Later, probably at the same time as the cavalier, a wall with musket slits was built over the new parapet. The wall on the inner side of the bastion, with the two latrines is probably late Portuguese. In the Arab period, a house was built against the re-entrant angle and it ceased to be a defensive position. A narrow wall was 'built on top of the wall of the musket slits, with a space behind for a sentry walk.The west wall of the Fort shows best the original defenses, consisting of a parapet, firing stop and parapet walk. Above it a curtain wall has been built in two stages, of which the upper part is furnished with musket slits but at a height fro m the ground, which would have needed scaffolding before they could be used.The Bastion of S. Alberto to the southwest contains the Curator's house and is not open to the public. Its plan is identical with S. Filipe. In the corner was another cavalier on which was built an Arab house, which was later converted into a magazine.The Church was also the parish church of Mombasa, the entrance was at the east end, and the room on the left of the altar was probably a baptistery. Traces of red ochre are to be seen on the floor and walls. The four platforms in the nave may be the bases of walls, which supported beams carrying a series of lights or openings below a long gable roof. The stumps of pillars down the center are Arab and were added to support the sagging roof. The west end was rebuilt in the late seventeenth century with large pier carrying an arch over the altar.Beside it is the Great Cistern, which was filled with water from the roof of the Church. The Arabs made the Well and washing places in the eighteenth century. The water is very brackish. The enclosures in the rear of the church were built in the second half of the seventeenth century and were open or had no permanent roofs. Behind them were two blocks of barrack rooms, divided by steps leading up to the parapet walk. They do not appear on the Rezende plan, so they were built after 1636. The north block was demolished when the enclosures behind the church were built. The three surviving rooms on the south side have been rebuilt and are possibly the storerooms referred to in the Menezes inscription. The room with supports for benches may have been at one time a store for cloth, the principal means of exchange, which would have been damaged if it had remained on the damp floor. Later the floor was raised and a new door made when the courts behind the church were built. The south block was again restored at the end of the eighteenth century, and a new floor laid about one meter above the old. This building was demolished when a platform was constructed over the old parapet and parapet walk in the nineteenth century.At the opposite end of the Main Court are the remains of the Captain's House, two Passages leading to the outwork and the two seaward Bastions.Leaving the ticket office on the left, we reach the Passage of the Arches, which was cut through the coral to emerge in the Outwork. Leading off the passage is the Ammunition Store, consisting of two chambers excavated in the coral. The passage is spanned by three arches, which carried floors on the outer and inner segments. In the outer segment there was an additional floor, which rested on a vault carried on coral ledges, which had been left on each side to support it. The last arch is peculiar and may be only a relieving arch, which was left when the original arch or opening was removed. After the blocking of the gate, drainage from the court filled the passage with mud, which by the early nineteenth century had reached the base of the relieving arch.The Captain's House was carried over the Passage of the Arches and extended to the outer wall of the platform, overlooking the Outwork. The east wall was destroyed in the great siege, and most of the south wall during the bombardment of 1875. The only part of the original outer wall that has survived is the north wall. The small chamber beside the north wall is merely a strengthening of the wall and was never open. The pedestal in the corner is a basin, which was in use before the wall was strengthened.To the right of the Passage of the Arches is a storied building of which the core, represented by the pillars in the west wall, was the portico outside the Captain's quarters. Subsequently, the original doors were blocked and an elaborate doorway in Indo-Portuguese style, flanked by pillars, was built. The seat with the rolled edge and the lotus scroll above it are contemporary with the doorway. During the Mazrui period the portico was converted into an audience room. Another seat was made along the west wall a nd a new roof, with beams carved with poems and Quranic verses, was erected. High up on the wall on the right-hand side of the doorway is a graffiti recording the pilgrimage to Mecca of the Mazrui Governor, Ahmad bin Muhammad, and his return in 1793. In this room the negotiations were carried on which led to the British Protectorate of 1824-1826. When the upper story was added, the openings above the seats on the west side of the room were blocked to carry the weight. Outside, on the left of the entrance, is a dais with a painted wall built in the eighteenth century.At the south end of the platform is the Passage of the Steps, leading down to a gate in the wall, which emerged, on the rock above the outwork. The window at the south end of the Audience Room is in the blocked entrance to this passage. It was blocked and the passage filled in about the middle of the seventeenth century, when the Captain's House was extended the whole length of the platform.Turning to the right, we regain the Main Court through a small room, built probably at the same time as the new doorway in the portico.Before reaching the Museum, an opening on the left leads into the Bastion of S. Mateus. This bastion, sometimes called the Bastion of the Flags, was the most exposed part of the Fort and was strengthened by a broad platform extending round the west side and the apex facing the sea. The fine plastered face of the platform was covered with sketches of galleons, churches, fishes and little figures of Portuguese and Arabs, painted a little before the construction of the later gun platforms. The pictures have been removed and are shown in the room at the back of the court. In the east wall of the bastion was a large gate, which emerged about ten feet above the surface of the ground outside, with which a wooden gangway would have linked it.When the level of the bastions was raised in 1634, a gun platform was erected on the seaward side with a vaulted passage leading to the gate. On the opposite side a thick battered wall was built, masking the wall with the paintings and raising the level of the platform so that the gun ports in the new west wall, covering the Bastion of S. Alberto, could be used. Between the west and the east platform was an open court leading to the gate. The cone-shaped structure built on the new wall is probably the seating for a flagstaff. At the back of the court and leading to the main court of the Fort was a room, which predated the filling-in of the bastion. The gate in the east wall was at one time narrowed to a posterm and later blocked. The court was largely filled in during the first quarter of the eighteenth century but is shown on the Lopes de Sa plan.At the end of the century, or later, a small mosque was built above the north end of it. The gun port in the corner is angled to fire on a ship the moment it passes the point on which the Katherine Bibby hospital (now called Mombasa Hospital) now stands. The turret beside it is the position of the officer controlling the fire of the battery on the gun platform. Both gun port and turret are omitted in the Owen sketch and must be the work of the last Mazrui between 1824 and 1837.The bastion is connected with the platform over the Captain's House through a prison warder's quarters and the south corner tower. This communication must have existed from the time of the filling up of the Captain's House. The lower line of crenellations, gun ports and musket slits belongs to the reconstruction of the early eighteenth century. The prison authorities added the upper line when a line of cells was built on top of the platform. The turret in the southeast corner is early nineteenth century; the turret in the northeast comer was built after the 1875 bombardment.A narrow passage between an L-shaped building, shown on the Lopes de Sa plan, and the outer wall of the Bastion of S. Matias leads to the raised north end of the bastion. The sunken court shows the original state of the bastion. In 1634 it was extended in the form of an elliptical bastion to cover the outer gate. The court was filled in and a curtain wall, with gun ports, built round the enlarged bastion. The parapet, the east wall and the house behind it were rebuilt after the 1875 bombardment.A modern flight of steps leads up to the roof over the outer gate, and another flight to the gatehouse. The gatehouse was blown up with the powder magazine by a Portuguese soldier, Antonio de Barbosa, after the fall of the Fort in 1698, and the walls of the solar above and the powder magazine below are an eighteenth century rebuilding. In the old solar the sultan killed the Portuguese Captain, Pedro Leitao de Gamboa and his wife and daughter during the 1631 revolt.We descend to the Main Court by a flight of stone steps. The vaulted Inner Gate is the original entrance to the Fort. Above it is an inscription, which can be translated:"When Philip of Austria was reigning as Philip I of Portugal this fortress was founded at his command with the name of Jesus of Mombasa on the eleventh of April, 1593. At this time Matias d'Albuquerque was Viceroy of India, and the Captain Major Mateus Mendes de Vasconcelos had arrived with his fleet at this harbor with the Chief Architect of India, Joao Batista Cairato, with Gaspar Rodriguez serving as Master of Works."Above the Outer Gate is another inscription recording the restoration of the Fort and the reconquest of the coast after the revolt of 1631, translated as follows:"In 1635 Francisco de Seixas de Cabreira, aged twenty-seven years, was made for four years Captain of this Fort which he had reconstructed and to which he added this guardroom. He subjected to His Majesty the people of this coast who, under their tyrant king, had been in a state of rebellion. He made the Kings of Otondo, Mandra, Luziwa and Jaca tributary to His Majesty. He inflicted in person punishment on Pate and Sio, which was unexpected in India, extending to the destruction of their town walls. He punished the Musungulos and chastised Pemba, where on his own responsibility he had the rebel governors and all leading citizens executed. He made all pay tribute to His Majesty who had neglected to pay it. For these services he was made a Knight of the Royal Household after he had already for other services been given the habit of the Order of Christ and a yearly grant of fifty milreis and the governorship of Jafnapatan for six years and of Belgaon for four years, with the right to make all appointments during his life and in the event of his death. During the Viceroyalty of Pedro da Silva in the year of our Lord 1639".The outside of the Fort is as interesting as the inside and less obscured by modern structures. After leaving the approach to the gate, turn left into the car park and follow the ditch. On the west face of the Bastion of S. Filipe, below the turret, is the coat of arms of Philip II of Spain. The wall of the Fort on this side presents a perfect example of a fortress planned according to the best Italian rules of the day. At the far end is the northwest Bastion of S. Alberto, with the arms of Albert the Pious, Archbishop of Toledo and Viceroy of Portugal from 1594 to 1596, and above it a turret similar to the turret in S. Filipe. During the first year of the siege a large number of the citizens of Mombasa lived in the ditch.The path continues round the Fort towards the shore. The southeast bastion, S. Mateus, soon appears on the left. On the east face are the arms of Mateus Mendes de Vasconcelos, the first Captain of Mombasa and the builder of the Fort. The gate from this bastion would have emerged to the right of the first gun port from the comer. It was at this point that the Fort was scaled on the night of the 12th December 1698. The polygonal tower, in the angle of the bastion and the gun platform, was added during the reconstruction of 1634.The path enters the Outwork in front of the platform. The Passage of the Steps came out above the coral slope on which the walls are built near the sout hwest corner. The Passage of the Arches emerged in the middle where the coral has been cut back for it. During the great siege supplies were landed on the beach south of the Fort and were carried into it through this passage.The present outwork is a reconstruction of the early nineteenth century. The nicks at the apex of the arches of the gun ports are a feature of the Arab architecture of the coast. On the earliest plans there seems to have been an outwork in this position, which may have collapsed. It is described as unfinished in the Cienfuegos plan, which could be as early as 1650, and is shown double, possibly an upper and lower section, on the Lopes de SA plan. The gateway facing the town is modem; the original entrance on the south side has been rebuilt. The square pit with an entrance through an elongated gun port is nineteenth century and was built to facilitate the storing of bulky commodities, which would be landed from boats at high tide. It is shown with a galvanized iron roof on a photograph taken in 1899.Leaving the outwork, the northeast bastion of S. Matias is on the left. On the right are the foundations of a wall from the outwork to the water gate, both late Arab. The water gate appears on the Guillain sketch of 1846, but not on the Owen sketch of 1824. The use of voussoirs shows the introduction of non-indigenous building techniques. Beyond the gate was a customs house, which has disappeared.The Bastion of S. Matias suffered greatly in the bombardment of 1875 and the upper part of the wall with the turret at the end has been rebuilt. The comer tower across the angle of the gun platform and the bastion was knocked down" with the musket men inside it", during the bombardment of 1875 and also has been rebuilt. The coat of arms of Matias d'Albuquerque, Viceroy of India from 1590 to 1597, after whom the bastion was named, is missing.Turning the comer we approach the gate of the Fort. The west wall of the original bastion is below the modern drain, and the whole length of wall beyond is the Elliptical Bastion, which was built in 1634 to cover the gate. The first approach to the Fort was by a flight of wooden steps across the ditch beside the wall of the old bastion. Later it was brought round the elliptical bastion on a wooden bridge, which, after it had collapsed, was replaced by a causeway.Excavated Artifacts and Wreck Collection At The Fort Jesus MuseumThe Museum is located across the gate of the Fort.The collection consists largely of ceramics: Chinese porcelain, Persian and Portuguese glazed ware and local and foreign earthenware excavated at Swahili sites on the coast or acquired in Mombasa. The Chinese porcelain includes Yueh, Lungch'uan and K'ang Hsi celadon; Yuan, Ming and Ch'ing blue and white, and Wang Hsi polychrome. The contemporary Persian wares include Sassanian-Islamic, blue and white, and lead glazed monochromes and polychromes dating from the ninth to the nineteenth century. The Portuguese wares consist of the polished red, and blue and white of the seventeenth century.The Chinese porcelain was imported from India; there is no evidence of direct trade between China and East Africa.On the left of the entrance there is a collection of Chinese and Siamese stoneware jars. Against the end wall is a display bf the finds from the Portuguese frigate, which sank off the Fort in 1697. Next to the counter is an ebony chair inlaid with ivory, and a carved wooden Mbuzi for grating coconut; these are characteristics of the East African Coast.On the left of the entrance is a Persian chest, which is a fine example of its type, and two vermicelli squeezers.The cases are in chronological order, and the labels are colored according to the origin of the exhibits:Buff - African;Yellow - Chinese;Green - Islamic;Blue - Indian;Red - European.The white labels provide a continuous narrative linking the cases with each other.In the first case on the left is a map of the coast of Kenya showing the sites of the historical monuments. The names in red are places where excavations have been carried out. The following twenty-one cases contain finds from excavations. Among the most interesting exhibits are the fine celadon dishes, the horned bowl used as a charcoal stove, the Portuguese gilt brass crosses and medallions, and European trade beads covering the period from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. On the wall beyond are a number of copies of plans from the Portuguese archives; crossing to the opposite side, the story is continued to the end of the nineteenth century.Many of the exhibits in these cases have been presented to the Museum. Among them are a number of fine pieces of Chinese porcelain of the eighteenth century; elaborately decorated wooden door locks; a set of Arab military equipment of the early nineteenth century, and some musical instruments. Horns blown at the side are a feature of the culture of the coast. Of the two in the Museum, one is a wooden war horn; the other made of buffalo horn carved in cameo is a proclamation horn of the Sultan of Pate.On the veranda there are a number of fragments of Arab tombstones; two models of Mtepe, the sewn boat of the coast, and some carved doors.Most of the cannon in the court are English eighteenth and early nineteenth century naval guns, which were brought to the Fort at the time of the reoccupation of 1837. On the north side of the court are eight English, one Swedish, one French, and one Venetian cannon. In front of the Museum is a line of English 18-pounders. The cannon balls range from twenty to three pounds weight, and were found in the Ammunition Store tinder the Captain's House.The collection reflects the cosmopolitan culture, which has been enjoyed by the coast for a thousand years.Contents Of The Portuguese Ship Wreck In Front Of The Fort JesusDuring attempts to relieve the siege of Fort Jesus a Portuguese 42-gun frigate sank in front of the Fort. This ship, the Santo Antonio de Tanna was built in Bassein, near Bombay, in 1680; the story of her sinking is told in a beautifully handwritten account of the siege which is kept in the National Library of Lisbon. After visiting Mozambique, the Tanna came back to Mombasa on 15 September, 1697, and anchored in front of the Fort, where she at once received the full attention of Arab batteries on shore. She was probably badly damaged, but she did not sink, and on 20 October "her anchor cables parted" and she drifted across the harbor, grounding on the "northeast reef", where she lost her rudder. Later the same day she drifted back and grounded on Mombasa Island, probably near the Old Port. The Portuguese were able to tow her back to a position in front of the Fort. By this time she could hardly have been seaworthy; after the valuables on board had been salvaged, she was abandoned, and gradually she sank to her present position, some 17m (55 ft) below sea level.In 1963, amateur divers searching the seabed in front of the Fort, found Chinese porcelain plates of the K'ang-hsi period (1662-1722), and further exploration yielded Portuguese bowls and other interesting objects. A limited excavation was carried out by volunteers in 1970 under the guidance of Dr. James Kirkman, and finds included a very large Siamese storage jar, a big copper cauldron, and a bronze cannon bearing the Portuguese coat of arms and the date 1678.There was little doubt that these objects had come from the Wreck of the Santo Antonio, and the National Museums of Kenya planned a larger scale excavation. As a first step, a preliminary survey by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology, Texas, was carried out in January February 1976, with financial help from the National Geographic Society.The results of this survey were very encouraging and in January 1977 two-dozen divers from Kenya, Britain, Portugal and U.S.A. assembled in Mombasa for the first three-month season of excavation under the direction of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. During this season most of the stern half of the ship was uncovered, and a transverse trench 2m by 16m was excavated across the center part of the hull and down the sloping sea bed below it. During the next two seasons, 1978 and 1979, the remainder of the hull was uncovered and recorded. The stern and bows have rotted away, leaving 27m of the hull in good condition. Probably the original length of the hull was about 35m. Although some hanging knees were found there is no longer any trace of the lower gun deck.The lower part of the ship's hull was found to be in surprisingly good condition where it had been buried and protected by the mud. The main timbers, almost certainly made of teak, were so hard that it was difficult to hammer a nail into them. The keelson with the mainmast step was located and the outer planking or strakes, some 10 cm thick, were found in position. Overlying them were the frames (or ribs) of the ship 25 cm square, and quite a lot of the ceiling planks (or 'floor') were still attached to the frames. In fact the hull was so complete that it was not possible at any point to see through to the keel. The fashioning of the harbor end of the ship showed that this was the stern and the prow was pointing out to sea.The Santo Antonio was based in Goa and it is not surprising to find thin earthenware flasks of Indian origin, though what is surprising is that some of them survived unbroken.Unglazed African pottery was abundant on the ship and must have been used for storage and for cooking. From an archaeologist's point of view it is extremely useful to have such a collection of pots of known age from various Indian Ocean ports, and an archaeological site in Mozambique has already been dated by reference to pottery from the Santo Antonio.A large number of broken square glass case bottles were found, fitted with pewter screw tops. Almost all the bottles were open and the screw tops were found separately which bears out a passage in the Lisbon manuscript. This describes how, on 16th September 1697, after fighting all day the men drank their ration of wine on empty stomachs and then became too drunk to carry out their duties.A number of very thin glass containers, which were the separate halves of sandglasses were found. Their size suggests that they were half hour glasses, and they would have been an important navigational aid, used with a knotted log-line to estimate the speed of the ship (hence the word 'knots').Among the most numerous items on the wreck were small rectangles of translucent shell. These are cut from the windowpane oyster shell (placuna placenta) and were used instead of glass in lanterns and probably also in windows. The shells are abundant around the Philippines and are still used to make lampshades and wind-bells.The stern of the ship was for the officers and the ship would have been controlled from there. It was in this area that four very interesting navigation compasses were found. Two are bowl compasses in which the round wooden compass bowl is balanced or gimbaled in a square wooden box, and two consist of a pair of gimbals. No compass cards or needles were found; it is probable that these were destroyed by the Portuguese to prevent them from falling into Arab hands.Another important find from the stern was a finely carved wooden figure, which seems to have held a trumpet in one hand and to have been associated with two carved wooden wings. The figure is certainly in character, and may even be a representation of Santo Antonio.The ship was carrying at least 200 logs of African ebony (Dalbergia melanoxylon; Swahili mpingo). This very hard wood is renowned for its suitability for turning on a lathe. The value of this cargo is indicated by the fact that almost every log has initials neatly carved in it.Many personal possessions of people on board the ship were found. These include an ivory comb, silver buttons and shoe buckles, clay pipes, parts of shoes with wooden stack heels, and religious medallions of St. Dominic and St. Francis Xavier.At present there are no plans to raise the remains of the ship; this would be extremely expensive. The cost of preservation would be prohibitive, even if it could be satisfactorily achieved. Instead, the ship's timbers have been meticulously measured and recorded in such a way that a scale model could be built. The remains of the ship have been reburied in mud and silt which is the best way to preserve them on the seabed until more is known about the conservation of timber from marine environments.However, the conservation of retrieved material has so far been very successful. From the wreck, Fort Jesus has developed one of the most modern conservation laboratories in this region.Click Here For Fort Jesus Price & Reservation
Fort Jesus Exclusive Online Videos By AfricanMecca
Click Here To Watch – View The Entrance of Fort Jesus Museum
Click Here To Watch – View Of Fort Jesus Inside
Click Here To Watch – Examine The Architecture & Wall Paintings

The Christ Within--- ka-spirit- karest-the Christ*

Karest (Egyptian) Mummy; Massey identifies it with Christ: "the author of the Christian name is the Mummy-Christ of Egypt, called the Karest, which was a type of the immortal spirit in man, the Christ within (as Paul has it), the divine offspring incarnated, the Logos, the Word of Truth, the Makheru of Egypt. It did not originate as a mere type! The preserved mummy was the dead body of any one that was Karest, or mummified, to be kept by the living; and, through constant repetition, this became a type of the resurrection from (not of !) the dead" (quoted BCW 188n). Blavatsky comments that this interpretation is too materialistic. {BCW 8: 197-200, 203}

The first time I heard the term Christ Within I listened with half-an-ear.
He talked about the concept of Christ not being a man, but a principle that permeated all of Africa and finally took shape in Egypt.
He spoke of Egypt as the seat or culmination of all African concepts, the incubator where those concepts became adult. He spoke of the Christ as something we all possess and which must be fed to grow.

This was hard for me to believe since I had been primed to look for Christ to come in the clouds and save me from the Apocalypse and sinful myself.
But I kept coming back to the scripture:

Philippians 2:12: " out your own salvation with fear and trembling."

Sorteria is used here for salvation from the root of sozo:

"when this word "saved" or "salvation" is used in connection with the spiritual condition, it can and does have different emphases."

Honestly it’s still difficult for me to unloose myself from those beliefs and now on the road of this journey, I choose to understand it as Christ outside of me communicating to the Christ within me.

There have been several takes on the concepts of the Christ Within. Most of them reformulated by Europe this is an example of the Western view.

The Baptist view:

John Spilsbury was an minister who led the Particular Baptists during the Seventeenth Century, for his part, simply argued that the gathered congregation, was properly constituted into a church state, by virtue of the "union they have with their head Christ, the body thus jointly considered hath the power and authority of Christ within herself [the church], to choose and make use of any one or more of her members, as occasion offers, and authorizes him or them to administer baptism on the whole body, and so on themselves in the first place as part of the same.

The Quakers view:
"...(in full Religious Society of Friends), designation of a body of Christians more commonly known as Quakers. Their fundamental belief is that divine revelation is immediate and individual; all persons may perceive the word of God in their soul, and Friends endeavor to heed it. Terming such revelation the "inward light," the "Christ within," or the "inner light," the first Friends identified this spirit with the Christ of history. They rejected a formal creed, worshiped on the basis of silence, and regarded every participant as a potential vessel for the word of God, instead of relying upon a special, paid clergy set apart from the rest.... The society, however, unlike many of its predecessors, did not begin as a formal religious organization. Originally, the Friends were the followers of George Fox, an English lay preacher who, about 1647, began to preach the doctrine of "Christ within" this concept later developed as the idea of the "inner light."...." The Encarta
Who was George Fox?
"...[Fox] traveled throughout Britain, North America, and Europe, calling hearers to experience directly the Spirit of God, met as "the Light of Christ" or "Truth" within each person."
"Quakerism is the product of the spiritual experience known as the Inward Light. The "opening" came to Fox, 'that Every Man was enlightened by the Divine Light of Christ, and I saw it shine through all...' ".
Quietism the mystic Quaker view:
"Quietism, type of mysticism that regards the most perfect communion with God as coming only when the soul is in a state of quiet. In this state it ceases to reason or to reflect either upon itself or upon God ceases to exercise any of its faculties, its sole function being passively to accept the fellowship that God is ever ready to bestow. This approach to mystic experience is not confined to Christianity but pervades all mysticism, being especially seen in Hindu philosophy and Sufism...
Miguel de Molinos' (1628-96) was the Spanish Roman Catholic priest and mystic who founded Quietism. Encarta Encyclopedia states:
"... A radical form of mysticism, quietism is based on the belief that perfection lies in the utter passivity of the soul before God, allowing it to be absorbed by the divine spirit. Because such passivity requires annihilation of the will, all actions, both good and bad are hindrances. His views, expressed in his Guida Spirituale (Spiritual Guide, 1675), were well received by both the clergy and the laity, and Molinos gained favor with Pope Innocent XI . Opponents of the pope accused Molinos of heresy as well as personal immorality charges that led to his arrest in 1685. In 1687 Molinos admitted wrongdoing and was sentenced to life imprisonment."
We see that the concept whether rightly or wrongly applied, goes back a few thousand years in Europe and America, but the original concept goes back possibly 30 thousand in Africa. The European understating was corrupted.
Let us look at the New Testament context which was at least 1 AD, Paul says in Galatians 2:20;
"I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live: yet not I but the Christ within me… and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me. "
“When Paul introduced the concept of a Redeemer born into a wicked world "who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this evil world" (Galatians: 3-4), he elaborated a theology of the Cross. He was not speaking of the Roman cross of punishment but the Egyptian ankh (cross), a symbol of Christ's victory over death that early Christians adopted during the first three centuries of their existence. In the 5th century AD the Roman-Latin cross became the Christian symbol.”
We have to put things in historical context. There was no New Testament written at the time Paul spoke this truth. There was not other Cross of Life but that of the Egyptians, the Ankh.
The cross was an anathema to the Jew during the time of Yeshua or Jesus.
“Ancient Jewish law allowed only four methods of execution: stoning, burning, strangulation, and decapitation. Crucifixion was thus forbidden by ancient Jewish law.” “Forensic and Clinical Knowledge of the Practice of Crucifixion" by Dr. Frederick Zugibe.
Would this mode or the icon of Jesus’ death be the symbol of life of freedom? No,
"The author of the Christian name is the Mummy-Christ of Egypt, called the Karest, which was a type of the immortal spirit in man, the Christ within (as Paul has it), the divine offspring incarnated, the Logos, the Word of Truth, the Makheru of Egypt. It did not originate as a mere type! The preserved mummy was the dead body of any one that was Karest, or mummified, to be kept by the living; and, through constant repetition, this became a type of the resurrection from (not of !) the dead" (quoted BCW 188n).
Where did the word Christ/Chrest come from?
“The word Chrestos existed ages before Christianity was heard of. It is found used, from the fifth century B.C., by Herodotus, by Aeschylus and other classical Greek writers, the meaning of it being applied to both things and persons. “
The word Chrestos was a consultant or an “oracle of a Phythian god”
“Thus in Aeschylus (Cho. 901) we read of pythochresta the "oracles delivered by a Pythian God" (Greek-English Lexicon) through a pythoness; and Pythochrestos is the nominative singular of an adjective derived from chrao (Eurip. Ion, 1218). “
What was a Pythia?
The Pythia (Gr. Πυθία) was the priestess presiding over the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus. The Pythia was widely credited with giving prophecies inspired by Apollo, giving her a prominence unusual for a woman in male-dominated ancient Greece.
Who were they?
Archaeologist John Hale--
“ the Pythia was (on occasion) a noble [woman] of aristocratic family, sometimes a peasant, sometimes rich, sometimes poor, sometimes old, sometimes young, sometimes a very lettered and educated woman to whom somebody like the high priest and the philosopher Plutarch would dedicate essays, other times [one] who could not write her own name. So it seems to have been aptitude rather than any ascribed status that made these women eligible to be Pythias and speak for the God.[9]
The first idea came as a fluke by inhaling fumes from a volcanic vent and these fumes opening up the mind [so they said] to see into the Spirit world.
The first Pythia and Delphic oracles were Africa women, possibly because they were expendable. If the fumes killed them, so what! But they lived and from that time on they were considered priestesses in Europe.
The Problem
What was missing is the people of Europe were looking for a way to communicate with God. They knew that black folks had supernatural insight, so they used us [just like today] to be the mystic Negro. Why? They did not want to go through the mystery system or didn’t believe in that system was viable for the masses. Those who did go to Africa/Egypt to study were ostracized and killed by their brothers on their return home.
So we see the term Christian or Chestos relates back to the “one who mutters the words/communication of God.”
According to Madame Blavatsky [now don’t get scared]
The WORD"; as chresterion is not only "the seat of an oracle" but also "an offering to, or for, the oracle.'' Chrestes is one who expounds or explains oracles, "a prophet, a soothsayer;" and chresterios is one who belongs to, or is in the service of, an oracle, a god, or a "Master".
All this is evidence that the terms Christ and Christians, spelt originally Chrest and Chrestians [chrestianoi] were directly borrowed from the Temple terminology of the Pagans, and meant the same thing.
The God of the Jews was now substituted for the Oracle and the other gods; the generic designation "Chrestos" became a noun applied to one special personage; and new terms such as Chrestianoi and Chrestodoulos "a follower or servant of Chrestos" -- were coined out of the old material.
This is shown by Philo Judaeus, a monotheist, assuredly, using already the same term for monotheistic purposes. For he speaks of theochrestos "God-declared," or one who is declared by god, and of logia theo-chresta "sayings delivered by God" -- which proves that he wrote at a time (between the first century B. C., and the first A. D.) when neither Christians nor Chrestians were yet known under these names, but still called themselves the Nazarenes.
So we see the symbol of Christ was an Egyptian [Ankh] and the name Christian was pre-Christian and was attributed to black priestesses who were the Pythia’s or mystic negroes.
The Karest and the Christ

The Karest mummy was a symbol used in Egypt. Here are the different European version as recorded in Luke 2:12

"This is how you will recognize him: You will find an infant wrapped in strips of cloth and lying in a manger."
"And this is the sign to you: you will see a young child folded in linen, in the place where the cattle have their food."
"and this is to you the sign: Ye shall find a babe wrapped up, lying in the manger.'
"And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger.

A babe wrapped in swaddling or strip of clothes

We were always told that swaddling was an age old practice and surely it was, but wt was the real root of the swaddling a child? Here are a few common reasons.

"Swaddling is an age-old practice of wrapping infants snugly in swaddling cloths, blankets or similar cloth so that movement of the limbs is tightly restricted. Swaddling bands were often used to further restrict the infant. It was commonly believed that this was essential for the infants to get a proper posture."

"Arthur Janov claims that even this form of swaddling has profound effects on the adult emotional life of a swaddled child. He claims that swaddling causes a lifelong deficit on oxytocin and oversupply of cortisol, resulting in a lifetime of rage and anxieties, though he does not offer a neurophysiological mechanism by which this might take place in humans.[8] One study has found that rats lose hormones in the hippocampus and orbital frontal lobes when tied up like swaddled human infants, developing depletions in serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, exacerbated aggressive behavior and a severe decrease of social capabilities."

"Some medical studies maintain that swaddling appears to be a positioning technique that can enhance neuromuscular development of the very low birth weight infant and that it might have a role in further lowering SIDS risk. Research has also found that swaddling helps infants sleep with fewer awakenings and stay in REM sleep longer."

IIn Christian circles, were told the cloth that swaddled Jesus was the old garments of the high priests. But that was a lie:

When a priest's garments become dirty or wear out they are used for wicks in the Temple; but when the high priest's garments wear out they must be buried, and the garments that he wears on Yom Kippur can be worn only once. It is forbidden to damage or disarrange the priestly garments, as it says "It shall not be torn",30 and it says "And the breastplate shall not slip off the ephod".
This means if s very unlikely the garment Jesus was swaddled in was a High Priests garment. I believe the swaddling relates back to the Karest and the mummy-babe seen above.

"The seven with Jesus as a group of attendant powers or followers may be seen in the seven doves that hover round the child in utero; the seven solar rays about his head; the seven lambs or rams with Jesus on the mount; the seven as stars with Jesus in the midst; the seven as fishers in the boat; and lastly, the seven as communicants who solemnize the Eucharist with the loaves and fishes in the mortuary meal of the Roman Catacombs. There are various pictures in the Catacombs which can only be explained by the pre-Christian gnosis. This alone can tell us why the divine infant should be imaged as a little mummy with the solar halo round his head, or why the so-called “Star of Bethlehem” should be figured with eight rays. Such things are Egypto-gnostic remains belonging to the Church in Rome that was not founded on the Canonical Gospels, but was pre-extant as gnostic; the Church of Marcion and of Marcelina"
The babe wrapped in a manger is an iconic image of the Egyptian karest-mummy and later relates to the resurrection in the spring. It does not matter if that resurrection was 33 years later it still the symbol at the biblical birth, annunciation and adoration of the Christ child in the manger.

Seven days of mourning for the burial of Osiris were also celebrated at the end of the month Choiak. This was known as the “fêtes des ténèbres”, which, according to Brugsch, commemorated the “sept jours qu’il a passé dans le ventre de sa mère, Nût” — equivalent to Jonah being in the belly of the fish, only the days of darkness in this phase are seven instead of three. These seven days of mourning are the prototype of Passion week in the rubrical usage of the Roman Church, during which the pictures of the cross (and Crucifixion) are all covered up and veiled in darkness. Here the funeral ceremony followed the burial of Osiris, whereas in the Christian version the fêtes des ténèbres precede the death and burial of the supposed historic victim.This, in the Egyptian original, would be the corpse of Osiris, the karest-mummy of him who died in the winter solstice three months before the resurrection in the equinox occurred at Easter.
The Holy Week of Christians/Catholics

Holy Week (Latin: Hebdomada Sancta) in Christianity is the last week of Lent. It includes the religious holidays of Palm Sunday (Passion Sunday), Maundy Thursday (Holy Thursday) and Good Friday, and lasts from Palm Sunday until but not including Easter Sunday, as Easter Sunday is the first day of the new season of The Great Fifty Days. It commemorates the last week of the life of Jesus Christ culminating in his crucifixion on Good Friday and his resurrection on Easter Sunday.
Evidence for it being an allusion to mummification at the resurrection:
"And stooping down he saw the linen cloths lying there, but he did not enter. [6] Then Simon Peter came up, following him, and went into the tomb, and saw the linen cloths lying there. But the burial napkin (or kerchief) which had been around Jesus' head, was not lying with the other linen cloths, but was [still] rolled up--wrapped round and round--in a place by itself. [8] Then the other disciple, who reached the tomb first, went in too, and he saw and was convinced and believed. [9] For as yet they did not know (understand) the statement of Scripture that He must rise again from the dead" (John 19:38-42;20:1-9, Parallel Bible, KJV/Amplified Bible.

Gerald Massey connects the Greek Christos or Christ with the Egyptian Karest, the "mummy type of immortality," and proves it very thoroughly. This is the zoomorphic symbol of Horus the Falcon. Similar to the Maltese Falcon used in the Movie with Humphrey Bogart and Sidney Greenstreet.

He begins by saying that in Egyptian the "Word of Truth" is Ma-Kheru, and that it is the title of Horus. Thus as he shows, Horus preceded Christ as the Messenger of the Word of Truth, the Logos or the manifestor of the divine nature in humanity. In the same paper he writes as follows.


“The Gnosis [knowledge] had three phases -- astronomical, spiritual, and doctrinal, and all three can be identified with the Christ of Egypt. In the astronomical phase the constellation Orion is called the Sahu or mummy. The soul of Horus was represented as rising from the dead and ascending to heaven in the stars of Orion.

The mummy-image was the preserved one, the saved, therefore a portrait of the Savior, as a type of immortality. This was the figure of a dead man, which, as Plutarch and Herodotus tell us, was carried round at an Egyptian banquet, when the guests were invited to look on it and eat and drink and be happy, because, when they died, they would become what the image symbolized -- that is, they also would be immortal! This type of immortality was called the Karest, or Karust, and it was the Egyptian Christ. “

The Lord’s Supper: 1Cor. 11:20-29

“When you come together, it is not the Lord’s supper that you eat. For in eating, each one goes ahead with his own meal. One goes hungry, another gets drunk. What! Do you not have houses to eat and drink in? Or do you despise the church of God and humiliate those who have nothing? What shall I say to you? Shall I commend you in this? No, I will not.

For I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "This is my body which is for[e] you. Do this in remembrance of me." In the same way also he took the cup, after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me." For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.”

To Kares means to embalm, anoint, to make the Mummy as a type of the eternal; and, when made, it was called the Karest; so that this is not merely a matter of name for name, the Karest for the Christ.”

Further evidence:

“In the Clementine Recognitions it is announced that the father anointed his son with "oil that was taken from the wood of the Tree of Life, and from this anointing he is called the Christ": whence the Christian name. This again is Egyptian. Horus was the anointed son of the father. The mode of anointing him from the Tree of Life, portrayed on the monuments, is very primitive indeed; and the Horus of Egypt was continued in the Gnostic Christ, who is reproduced upon the Gnostic stones as the intermediate link betwixt the Karest and the Christ, also as the Horus of both sexes.” The name and nature of the Christ. -- Gerald Massey

The seamless garment:

John 19:23-27 When the soldiers had crucified Jesus they took his garments and made four parts, one for each soldier; also his tunic. But the tunic was without seam, woven from top to bottom; 24 so they said to one another, "Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it to see whose it shall be." This was to fulfil the scripture, "They parted my garments among them, and for my clothing they cast lots." 25 So the soldiers did this. But standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Mag'dalene.

The Egyptian original:

This image of the Karest was bound up in a woof without a seam, the proper vesture of the Christ! No matter what the length of the bandage might be, and some of the mummy-swathes have been unwound that were 1,000 yards in length, the woof was from beginning to end without a seam.

Now, this seamless robe of the Egyptian Karest is a very tell-tale type of the mystical Christ, who becomes historic in the Gospels as the wearer of a coat or chiton, made without a seam, which neither the Greek nor the Hebrew fully explains, but which is explained by the Egyptian Ketu for the woof, and by the seamless robe or swathing without seam that was made for eternal wear, and worn by the Mummy-Christ, the image of immortality in the tombs of Egypt.

This spelling of the name as Chrest or Chrest in Latin is supremely important, because it enables me to prove the identity with the Egyptian Karest or Karust, the name of the Christ as the embalmed mummy, which was the image of the resurrection in Egyptian tombs, the type of immortality, the likeness of the Horus, who rose again and made the pathway out of the sepulcher for those who were his disciples or followers. Moreover, this type of the Karest or Mummy-Christ is reproduced in the Catacombs of Rome.

The other mummy figure in the gospels: Lazarus come forth!

No representation of the supposed historic resurrection of Jesus has been found on any of the early Christian monuments. But, instead of the missing fact, we find the scene of Lazarus being raised from the dead. This is depicted over and over again as the typical resurrection where there is no real one! The scene is not exactly in accordance with the rising from the grave in the Gospel.

It is purely Egyptian, and Lazarus is an Egyptian mummy! Thus Lazarus, in each representation, is the mummy-type of the resurrection; Lazarus is the Karest, who was the Egyptian Christ, and who is reproduced by Gnostic art in the Catacombs of Rome as a form of the Gnostic Christ, who was not and could not become an historical character.

Further, as the thing is Egyptian, it is probable that the name is derived from Egyptian. If so, Laz (equal to Ras) means to be raised up, while aru is the mummy by name. With the Greek terminal s this becomes Lazarus. In the course of humanizing the mythos the typical representation of the resurrection found in the tombs of Rome and Egypt would become the story of Lazarus being raised from the dead. This Karest type of the Christ in the Catacombs is not limited to Lazarus.

It could also be related to Osiris rising. By means of the Karest type the Christ and the Christians can both be traced in the ancient tombs of Egypt.

What is one conclusion?

“The fact that the Secular Church was founded by Constantine, and that it was a part of his decree "that the venerable day of the Sun should be the day set apart for the worship of Jesus Christ as Sun-day," shows that they knew well in that "Secular Church" "that the allegory rested upon an astronomical basis," as the author affirms. Yet, again, the circumstance that both Puranas and Bible are full of solar and astronomical allegories, does not militate against that other fact that all such scriptures in addition to these two are closed books to the scholars "having authority." (!) Nor does it affect that other truth, that all those systems are not the work of mortal man, nor are they his invention in their origin and basis.

Thus "Christos," under whatever name, means more than Karest, a mummy, or even the "anointed" and the elect of theology. Both of the latter apply to Chrestos, the man of sorrow and tribulation, in his physical, mental, and psychic conditions, and both relate to the Hebrew Mashiac (from whence Messiah) condition, as the word is etymologized by Fuerst, and the author of The Source of Measures, p. 255.

Christos is the crown of glory of the suffering Chrestos of the mysteries, as of the candidate to the final UNION, of whatever race and creed. To the true follower of the SPIRIT OF TRUTH, it matters little, therefore, whether Jesus, as man and Chrestos, lived during the era called Christian, or before, or never lived at all.

The Adepts, who lived and died for humanity, have existed in many and all the ages, and many were the good and holy men in antiquity who bore the surname or title of Chrestos before Jesus of Nazareth, otherwise Jesus (or Jehoshua) Ben Pandira was born. Therefore, one may be permitted to conclude, with good reason, that Jesus, or Jehoshua, was like Socrates, like Phocian, like Theodorus, and so many others surnamed Chrestos, i.e., the "good, the excellent," the gentle, and the holy Initiate, who showed the "way" to the Christos condition, and thus became himself "the Way" in the hearts of his enthusiastic admirers.

The Christians, as all the "Hero-worshippers" have tried to throw into the background all the other Chrestoi, who have appeared to them as rivals of their Man-God. But if the voice of the MYSTERIES has become silent for many ages in the West, if Eleusis, Memphis, Antium, Delphi, and Cresa have long ago been made the tombs of a Science once as colossal in the West as it is yet in the East, there are successors now being prepared for them.

We are in 1887 and the nineteenth century is close to its death. The twentieth century has strange developments in store for humanity, and may even be the last of its name. Blavatsky

Hopefully you will see that the cross, Christ, swaddling cloth, seamless burial garment and everything else about Yeshua relates back to Africa/Egypt and our ancestors understood that "Christ" was in us all as the greater spirit the Ka.

The Ka:

In Egyptian thought, the human soul is made up of five parts: the Ren, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, and the Ib. In addition to these components there was the human body (called the ha, occasionally a plural haw, meaning approximately sum of bodily parts).

After death, the "ka" would be "at rest" whilst the body was prepared and transformed into a mummy. The ka then needed to be reactivated so that the spiritual transformation of rebirth could take place. The deceased could then travel to join their "ka", and the link to the land of living through their tomb would then be established. It would be the person's "ba" that would make this symbolic journey.

“But we know that when he appears, we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is. Everyone who has this hope in him purifies himself, just as he is pure.” 1John 3:2-3

“The Lord Jesus Christ...will transform our lowly body that it may be conformed to his glorious body.” -Phil. 3:20-36

Ka (Egyptian) plural kau. Equivalent to the astral double, model-body, or linga sarira. The ancient Egyptians held that when a human being was born, the ka [was born with him and remained with him throughout his life.

So, what are we? We are made in the image and likeness of God?

"Then God said, 'Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth.' So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them.”

Who are we?

“See what love the Father has bestowed on us that we may be called the children of God. Yet so we are.” 1 John 3:1

What are our rights?
“For those who are led by the Spirit of God are children of God. For you did not receive a spirit of slavery to fall back into fear, but you received a spirit of adoption, through which we cry, “Abba, Father!” The Spirit itself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God, and if children, then heirs, heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ, if only we suffer with him so that we may also be glorified with him.” Romans 8:14-17

Are we God or just human?

“Jesus answered a group of Jews and said, "Is it not written in your law, 'I said, you are gods'?" (John 10:34).”

But this does not mean we are the creator of the universes, but we have that creative power in us. As it is in heaven so it is on Earth, the iconic image is the double pyramid.

This is the Jewish rendition called the Star of David or Solomon’s Seal, both came from Egypt by way of the Dravidians in India otherwise known as the
Eastern Ethiopians.

Is this blasphemy or revelation?

2 Timothy 2:15 says: “Study to show thyself approved unto God, a workman needing never to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth. “

Is there a Christ in Heaven?

We were made alive together with Christ” (Ephesians 2:5).
But our citizenship is in heaven, and from it we also await a savior, the Lord Jesus Christ.

Philippians 2:5-7 Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus: Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men..."

This is what I see:

We have to develop the Christ in us, which is in every man, to attract the Christ outside of us, if he is to come. We will all be resurrected. The story of Christ is an African story about all mankind’s essence as children of God and ultimately son and daughters of God.

Philippians 2:5-7 Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus: Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men..."

So you see, there is a mindset we must have in this inner man and develop it for the outer [God] to relate to and for to do greater works, this must be done so like can recognize like. Jesus within attests to Jesus without.

The spirit within communes with the Spirit without. Each Kine [kind] multiplying after is own kine [this is a bovine term], but it is true for the spirit. A man can not birth a cat nor a dog, but it multiplies after its own sort.

It is this mystery [of the development of Christ in all of us and not just a few] that the priest [Egypt/Israel/Babylon/Persia] hide from the masses and was only revealed to the initiate of those systems. Those initiates were always from the household of Pharaoh and the kings, queen, princess and princes of the world and never a commoner [unlearned].

Colossians 1:26-29 The mystery which has been hidden from ages and from generations, but now has been revealed to His saints. To them God willed to make known what are the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles: which is Christ in you [all of us], the hope of glory. Him [him who? The inner man] we preach [not just Jesus, but the Christ in YOU], warning every man and teaching every man in all wisdom, that we may present every man perfect in Christ Jesus. To this end I also labor, striving according to His working which works in me mightily.
1 Cor. 10-1-2 says: "Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; and were all baptized into Moses in the cloud AND in the sea; and all ate the same spiritual food; and all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them, and the rock [foundation, firmness] was Christ.

Was this an actual rock? Some preachers have said so but what is the Rock?

1. a rock, cliff or ledge
a) a projecting rock, crag, rocky ground
b) a rock, a large stone
c) metaph. a man like a rock, by reason of his firmness and strength of soul.

What did the ancients of Western thought believe?

Eusebius of Caesarea (circa 283-371 CE) wrote: "The religion of Jesus Christ is neither new nor strange."

St. Augustine of Hippo (354-430 CE) wrote: "This, in our day, is the Christian religion, not as having been unknown in former times, but as having recently received that name.

The Bible says of Jesus:

John 14:7-10 If ye had known me, ye should have known my Father also: and from henceforth ye know him, and have seen him....Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in [inside] me? the words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself: but the Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works.

Development of Christ/Karest on the inside of us was the plan of the biblical 'Garden of Eden' and Yahshua as our brother and example was to show us how this is manifested. So whatever he is we are, and whatever he can do we can do because he is in us.

It’s all about our insides!

The Awakening of Osiris-The Book of Coming Forth by Day

"I come forth by day and go out burning. To the end, I burn white with heat. On the day of unwrapping the mummy clothes [grave clothes], on the day of opening the storehouse, on the day of washing the body, on the day of speaking secrets, I am with you, my ;love as gods are. I stand besides the lotus pool watching that pink bud ready to flower. It is I, Osiris [Jesus] I am joyful as a stone, it is the joy of men I feel; it is the joy of matter. I am the circuitous path of the unseen, from nothing but thought into becoming. I am the anointed in oil. The power shivers from my heart down to my arms. Self-sacrifice is only learning to make ones self holy, to be the sum of a man, more than his parts. These breaths I release to the wind, make me one with the wind. the blood flows back tot he river like water. The flesh dries, it cracks and scatters, dust again. When light in my eyes flickers out, the spark flies back to the flaming heart of gods.

It is only flesh and breath, blood, bones an hair. I come and go out of the fire unchanged. "

Master Plan of the Universe*

Visions of the Sun Disk, arising upon an arc of wind swept desert.
The Great Hymn of Aten shows us Akhenaten poetic sway.
"Birds fly up to their nest, their wings extended in a praise of your Ka {spirit}.
Allowing Aten rays to shine. You rise in perfection on the horizon of the sky".

The Great Sphinx, a humble and silent guardian of the Giza, navigating the Stars.
It faces east, with his face shining slightly to catch the first rays of the rising sun.
The braided beard that once hung from the Sphinx , leaves traces of Kush, and Nubia and the Dream Stella. Nefertiti known to Thutmos as a Chef-D' Oeure, "The beautiful woman has come".
The decans constellations--- Master plan of the Universe unfolds.
The Great pyramids, Beauty of the Nile.
One of the greatest stories ever told.
Whenever, you hear of Mighty Egypt, know that this is true,
It stands for the "Black Land" and it's people looked like me and you.
Continue to keep your head up and search for the truth.
For your lineage goes far back many years, and beholds much Depth!
For many moons ago.... Invaders swooped Africa like a tidal wave.
Wrecking havock and distorting our history, while taking credit for everything that's African made. The precious treasures of our land are vital and preciously saved.
Let's continue on researching for truth of our origins.
Like a cartouche magically protecting the names of our ancestors and monuments.


Written: Spirit of Sankofa*

Black Africans vs. Religion--resurrection-the after life*

I was indeed blessed by this video. It explain alot of things considered in religion today. It's origins are African based. Distorted for the purpose of confusion and to keep truth out of the spiritual. I hope the reader can comprehend it's meaning.

Monday, January 26, 2009

Intro: To BLACK HISTORY MONTH: Celebrating Our Shared History*

Introduction to Black History Month
What we now call Black History Month was originated in 1926 by Carter Godwin Woodson as Negro History Week. The month of February was selected in deference to Frederick Douglass and Abraham Lincoln who were both born in that month. Photo: Carter Godwin Woodson
Origins of Black History Month
Background of Database
Who Was Henry Baker?
Do You Have to be Dead to be Famous?

Spirit of Sankofa writes.....
We have made it our business not only to introduce Black History only in the month of Febuary, but 365 days a year. For we understand the significance for " One to "KNOWTHYSELF" that we feel... there is a Urgency in getting this precious knowledge out to our community! So in the spirit of retrieving our precious jewels we will indeed travel back further than we are apt bringing to you the reader some of those great ancestors that has paved the way that we all should know about....sit back and enjoy the****

Black History Month
By Mary Bellis, Guide to Inventors
Black History Month celebrates the history and achievements of African Americans from all walks of life. What are contemporary African American scientists and inventors achieving today? In celebration of Black History Month, Inventors will highlight the accomplishments of African American inventors.
Introduction to Black History Month
Elijah McCoy
Granville T. Woods
Jan Matzeliger
Jack Johnson
Lonnie G Johnson
African American Women Inventors
Black History Month Fun
African American Patent Holders

Black History Month Stories
Benjamin Banneker
George Washington Carver
Garrett Morgan
Lewis Latimer
Madame Walker

Black History Month Fun
Test your knowlege of Black History Month by taking our fun quiz.
Black Inventors Trivia Quiz
Free Newsletter - Black History Month Facts and History

A Brief History of Africentric Scholarship: Maat News*

A Brief History of Africentric Scholarship:

It is certainly not widely known, but Black scholars have focused on Africa as a source of pride and as the cradle of the world's earliest civilization since the beginning of the Nineteenth Century. In this brief article, we shall consider some of the Africentric pioneers and their descendants in the Twentieth Century.
In the December issue of Maat, we loosely defined Africentrism as "the focus on Africa as the continent of origin of the human race and the cradle of civilization. "We also cited the definition of Afrology provided by Dr. Molefi K. Asante of Temple University:
"The term Afrology, coined in Afrocentricity: The Theory of Social Change, denoted the Afrocentric study of African concepts, issues and behaviors. It includes research on African themes in the Americas and the West Indies, as well as the African continent."
If we take the foregoing broad definition as a point of departure for identifying early scholars of Africentrism, we must begin with two Black men from the Caribbean, Baron P.V. Vasty and Prince Sanders. These two Haitians appear to have been the first Blacks in the Western Hemisphere to insist that Egypt was the cradle of African civilization and by extension that of the entire world. They introduced these concepts during the first two decades of the Nineteenth Century.1
By 1830, another Africentric voice took center stage. A Boston businessman, David Walker, wrote his now famous Appeal. In this book he claimed that the Ancient Egyptians were a Black people analogous to African Americans:
"The Egyptians were Africans or coloured people, such as we are - some of them yellow and others dark - a mixture of Ethiopian and the natives of Egypt - about the same as you see the coloured people of the United States at the present day."2
In 1879, Harvard educated physician Martin Delaney also wrote about the racial origin of the Ancient Egyptians:
"To determine the race representatives of the Egyptian gods, will go far toward deciding the disputed questions as to who were the first inhabitants of Egypt and builders of the pyramids, catacombs and sphinxes...
...[T]he fact is, that the Negro race comprised the whole native population and ruling people of the upper and lower region of the Nile - Ethiopia and Egypt - excepting those who came by foreign invasion; and the entirety of the Negro group in this important historical representation, can be readily accounted for from the fact of the columns being found in Ethiopia, a part of this country -- Africa -- where foreigners did not so frequently reach, and therefore did not deface and erase, as was common in regard to those for centuries found in Egypt.3
By the 1880's, prominent African Americans were even more emphatic in their declaration that Africa in general and ancient Ethiopia and Egypt in particular were the progenitors of world civilization. In 1883, the renowned historian George Washington Williams wrote:
"Before Romulus founded Rome, before Homer sang, when Greece was in its infancy, and the world quite young, 'hoary Meroe' was the chief city of the Negroes along the Nile. Its private and public buildings, its markets and public squares, its colossal walls and stupendous gates, its gorgeous chariots and alert footmen, its inventive genius and ripe scholarship, made it the cradle of civilization, and the mother of all. It was the queenly city of Ethiopia, - for it was founded by colonies of Negroes. Through its open gates long and ceaseless caravans, laden with gold, silver, ivory, frankincense, and palm oil, poured the riches of Africa into the capacious lap of the city. The learning of this people embalmed in the immortal hieroglyphic, flowed down the Nile, and, like spray, spread over the delta of that time-honored stream, on by the beautiful and venerable city of Thebes, -the city of a hundred gates, another monument to Negro genius and civilization, and more ancient than the ancient glory of Ethiopia! Homeric mythology borrowed its very essence from Negro hieroglyphics; Egypt borrowed her light from the venerable Negroes up the Nile. Greece went to school to the Egyptians, and Rome turned to Greece for law and the science of warfare. England dug down into Rome twenty centuries to learn to build and plant, to establish a government, and maintain it. Thus the flow of civilization has been from the East-the place of light-to the West; from the Orient to the Occidental."4
In 1884, abolitionist Frederick Douglas made similar comments about Ancient Egypt in a commencement speech before the literary societies of Western Reserve College in Rochester:
"The fact that Egypt was one of the earliest abodes of learning and civilization, is as firmly established as are the everlasting hills, defying, with a calm front the boasted mechanical and architectural skill of the nineteenth century ... Greece and Rome -- and through them Europe and America have received their civilization from the ancient Egyptians. This fact is not denied by anybody. But Egypt is in Africa. Pity that it had not been in Europe, or in Asia, or better still in America!
Another unhappy circumstance is, that the ancient Egyptians were not white people; but were undoubtedly, just about as dark in complexion as many in this country who are considered genuine Negroes; and that is not all, their hair was far from being of that graceful lankness which adorns the fair Anglo Saxon head."5
By the early Twentieth Century, a number of African Americans had an opportunity to receive a college education. Most of them became leaders in their respective communities and a few rose to international prominence. Two who fell into the latter category were Dr. Carter G. Woodson and Dr. W.E.B. DuBois.
Arguably, Woodson was Black America's leading historian. In 1915, he formed The Association For The Study of Negro Life and History and in 1916, he founded the Journal of Negro History. In 1926, he established the second week of February as Negro History Week. By the 1960's Woodson's concept grew to the point where all of February was designated as "Black History Month."
Today, Woodson's legacy has had such an impact that in many parts of the United States Black history "month" begins with the January 15th celebration of the Martin Luther King Holiday and extends for six weeks to the last day of February.
Dr. DuBois was one of the greatest American intellectuals of the Twentieth Century. This giant of a man was a historian, sociologist, editor, poet, author and an eminent African American leader.
These two Harvard educated Blacks laid the foundation of modern Afrocentric scholarship. In "The Negro In Our History" and "The African Background Outlined," Woodson contends that the ancient Egyptians were Negroid and speaks of the Nile Valley as the cradle of civilization.
As the Dean of African American Letters, DuBois wrote several volumes on the antiquity of African civilizations and their profound influence on the Western World. According to Drake, "The reexamination of Egyptology from a black perspective, initiated by the Afro-American scholar Dr. W.E.B. DuBois in 1915, in several chapters of his book 'The Negro,' eventually became a Pan-African enterprise that reached its culmination in a book-length publication -- The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality -- by Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop, a West African scholar, almost sixty years later."6
In 1939, DuBois wrote another history of the people of African descent, "Black Folk: Then and Now." Then in 1947 he wrote, "The World And Africa: An inquiry into the part which Africa has played in world history." At the time of his death in Ghana in 1963 at the age of 95, DuBois was editing the Encyclopedia Africana.
In the 1920's William L. Hansberry, another Harvard graduate, emerged as the preeminent African American authority on African history and remained so until the time of his death in the mid-1960's. He taught at Howard University and travelled to Egypt to examine the monuments firsthand. According to Hilliard: "Hansberry followed the pattern of other African diasporan scholars by his appeal to ancient texts. He mastered the Greek record and describes Africa through their eyes."7 Hansberry also opened many eyes, including mine, in his series of articles on "Africa's Golden Past" that appeared in Ebony magazine in 1964 and '65. Although Hansberry did not publish much of his extensive research during his life, Joseph E. Harris has published some of his work posthumously.8
From the 1920's through the 1940's another group of Afrocentricists appeared. Although outside of the academic tradition, their contributions have withstood the test of time. Drusilla Dungee Houston, one of our few female historians, wrote definitive works on the Nile Valley with special emphasis on the Ethiopians or "Cushites."9
Dr. Willis N. Huggins, a member of the Department for Social Studies of the New York high schools and a mentor for a number of the later scholars, published "An Introduction to African Civilization." Huggins noted that "an increasing number of white historians and writers are becoming fairer in dealing with data pertaining to Africans, and that some were actually seeking curriculum revision, but that 'most of the white writers are still too timid to enter the lists and help make the proper adjustments.'"10 He hoped, in vain, that his work would be used to reform the curriculum so that the contributions of the African people would be included.
The third writer of this group was J.A. Rogers. Of his work DuBois has written: "[N]o man living has revealed more important facts about the Negro race as has Rogers."11 Drake describes him as "a remarkable, self-trained historian-anthropologist from Jamacia... who spent most of his adult years in New York."12
It can probably be said without exaggeration that Rogers did more than any other Africentrist to educate the masses of Black Americans about Black people in Ancient Africa and around the world.
Rogers conducted research in libraries and museums in Europe and the Americas, and travelled the world over. While most contemporary Africentrists focused on the Nile Valley as the cradle of civilization, he most certainly placed emphasis there too, but also revealed the vast and ancient Black presence around the globe. He presents compelling evidence of prehistoric Black people in Europe, Western Asia, the Middle East, India, Southeast Asia and the New World.
Rogers published numerous books, including "From Superman To Man," "One Hundred Amazing Facts About The Negro With Complete Proof: A Short Cut to the World History of the Negro," "Sex and Race, Negro-Caucasian Mixing In All Ages and All Lands" and "World's Great Men of Color."
Rogers' publications remain among the most popular books on Black history even today, over thirty years after his death.
1954 proved to be a pivotal year for Africentric scholarship. West African scholar J.C. deGraft-Johnson wrote "African Glory: the story of vanished negro civilizations," a pioneering volume on African history. During this same year, "Stolen Legacy" was published by George G.M. James, an African American professor of Guyanese descent. James' work, which circulated in the underground for years, has emerged as a classic volume that inspired some of the most eminent modern Africentrists.
Although James' book has recently been subject to widespread criticism, particularly by Mary Lefkowitz, Andrew W. Mellon, Professor in the Humanities at Wellesley College, one must look at "Stolen Legacy" in the context in which it was written. James did the best he could as a scholar in the segregated South at a time when African Americans were forbidden to use many libraries, to visit many museums and to participate on excavation teams. Nevertheless, today many of James' claims are being substantiated by a new breed of Africentrists, who have come into prominence since the 1960's.
Foremost among these scholars was the late Senegalese nuclear physicist, anthropologist, archaeologist, linguist, historian and Egyptologist, Cheikh Anta Diop. He left a solid, academic legacy that spanned over thirty years. Diop's most distinguished works include "The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality" and "Civilization or barbarism."
Two other giants of this era were the late, self-educated scholar, John G. Jackson and Dr. Chancellor Williams, a late disciple of the great William Hansberry. The former's major work included "Introduction to African Civilizations." Williams magnum opus was "The Destruction of Black Civilizations: Great Issues of a Race from 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D.11 Drake refers to this book as "one of the most widely used books in Black Studies classes and study groups both at schools and in communities."
Two other scholars are the elders of modern Africentrism, Dr. John Henrik Clarke and Dr. Yosef ben-Jochannan. The former was a professor at Hunter College for years; he has served as an advisor and confidant to countless Black scholars; he has written introductions to many books on African and African American history and culture, and he has a number of books to his own credit;, the latest of which are "My Life In Search of Africa," "Who Betrayed The African World?" and "Pan Africanism or Perish."
Dr. ben-Jochannan, affectionately referred to as "Dr. Ben," is in a class of his own. Revered by Black students everywhere, he introduced the practice of taking large numbers of African Americans on tours in Egypt, Nubia and other parts of Africa each year. A renowned lecturer, Dr. Ben has also written several books, including "The Black Man of the Nile," "The Black Man Of The Nile and His Family," "African Origins of the Major Western Religions," "The Black Man's Religion" and "Africa: Mother of Western Civilization."
Today the Africentric movement has become so widespread and produced so many scholars that they are too numerous to mention. Among the better known are Manu Ampim, Molefi Asante, Mathu Ater, Tony Browder, Jacob Carruthers, Charles Finch, Asa Hilliard, Leonard Jeffreys, Maulana Karenga, Theophile Obenga, Runoko Rashidi, Larry Obadele Williams and Ivan Van Sertima.
Special mention should also be made of the Association For The Study of Classical African Civilizations. Headed by Nzinga Ratibisha Heru, this international, Africentric historical organization trains scholars and has published a number of pioneering papers.
As can be discerned from this brief paper, Africentrism is not a new movement promoted by egomaniacal pseudoscientists. Although the media and academe have distorted and attempted to discredit all progressive Black scholarship, such interference will not prevail. Now, more than ever before, Africentric scholars are determined to show that the pen can be "more mighty than the sword," and that truth crushed to the earth will indeed rise again.