Sunday, October 10, 2010

THE 4 NUBIAN PRINCIPLES AND DESCENDANTS OF NUBIA

According to a conversation, Professor Brown who teaches anatomy at Medgar Evers College in NYC; She states that ancient Nubian's, as other African cultures, operated through an uplifting and positive law.


========
The 4 (four) Nubian Principles
========


1- PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY

2 - LAW OF FREEDOM

3- LAW OF OWNERSHIP

4- NOTHING CAN CHANGE, WHO TIME HAS COME,
IT'S OUR TIME!

=================



The History of Nubian civilization extends back to about 17,000 years (See Van Sertima: Egypt Revisited)

This history included a strong connection with a great Black Civilization that existed in the Sahara and consisted of a number of Black Nations, including some of the ancestors of people who live in the South Pacific/Melasia, who had been sailing to Asia earlier than 100,000 years B.C.



The Nubians created the world's first civilization and that civilization was much older than Egypt. In fact, in 2000, archeologists discovered many facinating artefacts, including glasswork of great beauty and excellent craftsmanship.


These were found in Sudan and according to Time Magazine, some artefacts were dated to about 8000 years B.C. Astronomy was also well organized in Nubia during the period and an astronomical observatory dating back to about 7000 B.C. was found in Sudan as well. It is also in Sudan that a large number of ancient cities exist.


The Nubians also built a large number of small pyramids later on in their history but they used a very sophisticated system of tombs to bury their kings. Many were similar in style to the early Egyptian Mastabas.


Those of later centuries were small pyramids with chapels built on top and the tombs and beneath the ground.


===============
WHO ARE THE DESCENDANTS OF THE ANCIENT NUBIANS TODAY
===============


The birth of Nubianism or the return of the Nubian consciousness, study of Nubian history, reverence for Nubian culture and the recognition of the Nubian blood and lineage started in Nubia, right there in the South of Egypt, where to be Nubian is to belong to the world's longest lasting civilization and the belonging to a people with the longest lasting kingship on earth.

It may be surprising to note that the Nubian monarchy continues to exist today and Nubians continue to have their king, although the land of Nubia is occupied by invaders (and their culture, religions and laws) who originally migrated from the northern Semitic lands, and who have mixed in with some Sudanese to create a new type of people similar to South.


Today, the Nubas of the Nuba Mountains are direct descendants of the ancient Nubians.


The Nuer People of Sudan, the Dinkas and a number of "Nilotic" peoples as well as many people in East Africa of Bantu linguistic origins are also of Nubian origins.


In fact, although it is said that the Bantu ( Ba-Ntu ) migrated from Nigeria to populate the rest of Southern Africa about five thousand years ago, there is a significant of what appears to be close linguistic similarities between some Nilotic and ancient Egyptian and Cushite languages with the Bantu Languages, both of which originated in the Sahara.


==========

These similarities include the "Ba" prefix to name nationalities, such as "Ba-luba" "Ba-kongo," or the "N' to denote persons and groups, such as "Ntu" (probably nation or people) or Ndabaningi (a person's name) or "N-g-r" (God in ancient Egyptian) or the word "N-t-y-r" (Nature, God, sacred in ancient Egyptian).

==========


Hence, these tall and medium height peoples of Africa who are spread from Ethiopia and Somalia to West Africa and south to Zululand are all connected.

They were once spread as far as Turkey and Southern Europe in Preshitoric times and as far as Fiji and ancient Mexico. One of the most important migrations of Africans to the Americas occurred about 600 B.C., when groups of people from West Africa who worshipped Shngo the Thunder Element and who used the axe, migrated to Mexico about 600's B.C. and introduced their religions.

According to Sitchin......

Blacks with Egyptian connections migrated to Mexico about 3113 B.C. and on that date, introduced the first calendar to Mexico. Others have pointed out that the Olmecs were a combination of West Africans and Nubians (see "A History of the African-Olmecs pub by 1st Books Library.


The distances between the two cultures are thousands of miles apart, however, both the Carthaginians and Pharaoh Nikau sent people to West Africa to trade between 600 B.C. and 450 B.C. respectively. The West Africans and Nubians most likely collaborated with each other and had cultural contact.


==============
NUBIANS IN SUDAN AND SOUTHERN EGYPT RISE
==============

Nubian consciousness is one that is extremely strong regardless of the present state of the Nubians. In fact, the Nubians suffered a sever blow when they were removed from their sacred lands in Southern Egypt for the building of the Aswan Dam some decades ago. Many ancient Nubian sites, ruins and valuable lands are now covered with water, in what many Blacks see as a swift wiping out of the evidence of Nubia's greatness.

Still, the Nubians continue to maintain their pride and their culture. They continue to maintain their history and to make sure that their contributions to world civilizations is not stolen. During a conversation with Nubians, Professor Gates (who made a documentary on African history about two years ago) found out first hand that Nubians in Nubia continue to maintain the great pride in self that was part of the spiritual consciousness that made Nubian civilization great and long-lasting.


===========

THE RISE OF NUBIANISM IN AMERICA

===========

One fact must be realized by Blacks in the Americas. That fact is that Blacks West Africa who are not of the Pygmy tribes (where there are few if any) are of the same origins as Africans in Sudan.

In fact, among many Yorubas and others, there is the belief that Nubians migrated from Egypt during the Exodus and settled in Mali, then moved southward into Nigeria and the region.

There are other sources that point to the coming of groups from Egypt and sudan about 1100 to 1500 B.C. from the Nubia region of Sudan and Southern Egypt.

The identification with Nubian Civilization and culture by African Americans is only natural, since many African-Americans, if not most are related and directly connected to Africans who came in from West Africa, the Congo-Angola region, Sudan/Ethiopia region and an area from Central Africa to Mozambique.


The Spaniards and Portugese got captives from West Africa but they also got many from Southern and Eastern Africa as well. The British and French got captives from West and Central Africa.

So, considering the ancient linguistic connections with Sudan and the fact that many of our ancestors actually came from this region, then the Black glorification with Nubian civilization is only proper.

It is even more accurate that English connection with Greek civilization, which had begun by the ancient Khemites who inhabited the Greek Islands and Crete before the "Aryan" migrations from Central Asia into Greece, Southern and Western Europe.

Hotep!

Sunday, October 3, 2010

The Educational Importance to Fundraise for Sankofa Academy

Ollie McClean has Incorporated within her school.....



"CULTURE AS A WEAPON
EDUCATION AS A TOOL FOR LIBERATION
THEREFORE, GIVING ALTERNATIVES
IMPLANTING THE AFROCENTRIC SEED OF PRIDE!"
Quote - C. Barron
======================




Spirit of Sankofa*.......
===================

Ms. Ollie McClean is the founder of Sankofa Preparatory School Int'l.
I have much respect for this woman of Afrocentric Culture.
She envisioned a school, that would teach, the importance of African cultural awareness, taught to "Children of African Descent".


There is a genuine need for our children to learn about self.
Her philosophy is.....as she was taught by her mother....

We are originally Ethiopians....we built the pyramids, created languages and religion, there is no way you can't do simple math.

Every school day she reinerates daily to the students of Sankofa...
You are born "Geniuses", it is born in you!


========
Snapshot:
========

Ms. McClean also feels our Black youth today feel they have no hope. They too, also have been brainwashed through negative messages through media and music. An example of this, is a rapper who is in jail, that puts out a song called "I AM NOT HUMAN". Demonizing us to a point they don't deserve to feel, learn and to achieve.

The fear is how long before our youth would pick this negative message and really believe this?

There is also a fear in our society, that if Blacks were taught their history, that they would no longer want to be American?

We have a great need to learn and love ourselves. We can't deceive ourselves any longer ,by believing we will attain the American dream, as it's portrayed by the familiar path of today.


Schools like Sankofa desperately need our support. schools that incorporate as part of their curriculum for our children....learning of all the African countries in Africa. etc....

Sankofa needs the community to step forth and see the importance of this non funding school. There should be more like this in the Black communities. Taking the example of this great sister, who didn't have much money to fund a project like this.

She sought out retired family members who worked with the Bd. of Ed. and others to help this school. She also explains how Sankofa was started in a vacant church then later held classes in an occupied church edifice.


Jitu Weusi

Activist and educator Jitu Weusi has worked to uplift and develop the cultural and social awareness of the African American community of Central Brooklyn...

Has supported the Sankofa School as well as Charles Barron. Inez Barron educator and the wife of C. Barron, stated, that principles need a business manage, so they can focus more on the curriculum of educating.



SPIRIT OF SANKOFA*
=================



Activists and artists fundraise for Sankofa Academy
==============================

Statistics on the state of Black education often remind us of despair. Sankofa International Academy reminds us that there is hope. Sankofa's roadmap reminds us that it is our collective responsibility, as an entire community, to ensure that no child is left behind educationally, socially or culturally. Together, we have a role in creating the kind of world we want for generations to come.

Rome Neal and friends demonstrated why it is time to shift the conversation from talking about our pain to talking about our plan. On the evening of March 14, Rome teamed up with Franz Mettelus, owner of Rustic Tavern at 471 DeKaIb Avenue in Brooklyn; John Smith; and Jitu Weusi and held a fundraiser to showcase their plan of action in addressing the primary financial concerns of Sankofa.






=======================
City Councilwoman Leticia James reminded everyone that independent education plays a very important role in the educational discourse, especially when it comes to meeting the needs of the African child. She stressed that the reason for supporting Sankofa's students is so that they can continue to become geniuses in their own rights, achieving the status of scientist, astronaut or even president.
=======================


The sea of artists who brought their collective talent to support this exceptional school was comprised of jazz vocalist Patsy Grant, Lou Vega on guitar, Eric Frazer on congas, Gene Torres on bass, and Al Husband and Larry Williams on drums. They all kept the guests entertained with their riveting melodies.

The supporters were from all walks of life and included Councilman Charles Barron; the Rev. Herbert Oliver of the Montgomery Bus Boycott; Dr. James Mcintosh, CEMOTAP; attorney Colin Moore and his wife; Michael Hooper, Roots Revisited; Min.Clemson Brown, historian; Brenda Brunson-Bey, Tribal Truth Collection; and Malchijah Hats.

Ollie McClean, founder and director of Sankofa, summed up the event in her remarks by stating that the essence of education is the practice of freedom and that many politicaUy motivated educational plans have failed because the authors designed them according to their own personal views of reality, never once taking into account the children of African ancestry, to whom their program is ostensibly directed. However, Sankofa offers a course of study rich in cultural history and academics, thus addressing the "whole" child.

For more information, contact Sankofa International Academy, Post Office Box 330-505, Brooklyn, NY or call the school at (347) 365-9989.



New York Amsterdam News,
Mar 25-Mar 31, 2010

HOTEP*

Mambukal Mudpack Festival

June 6, 2010


Held at the height of monsoon season, the Mambukal Mudpack Festival in Murcia, Negros Occidental, celebrates the harmony of man and nature and encourages environmentalism among young people.

To get in the spirit, participants cover themselves with the rich soil known as Mambukal clay.

=====================

Source: National Geographic
http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photo-of-the-day/mambukal-mudpack-festival/

Saturday, October 2, 2010

Descendants of 1st Black US Doctor mark NYC grave

NEW YORK (AP) -- White descendants of the nation's first professionally trained African-American doctor gathered in a cemetery on Sunday to dedicate a tombstone at the unmarked grave where he was buried in 1865.

"Right now I feel so connected in a new way, to actually be here," said Antoinette Martignoni, the 91-year-old great-granddaughter of James McCune Smith. "I take a deep breath, and I thank God, I really do. I am so glad to have lived this long."

Smith, born in New York City in 1813, wanted to be a doctor but was denied entry to medical schools in the United States. He earned a degree from the University of Glasgow in Scotland, then returned to New York to practice. Besides being a doctor, he was celebrated in his lifetime as a writer and an anti-slavery leader.

Although scholars have written books about Smith, who set up a medical practice in lower Manhattan and became the resident physician at an orphanage, his descendants knew nothing about him until recently.

The story of why Smith was nearly overlooked by history and buried in an unmarked grave is in part due to the centuries-old practice of light-skinned blacks passing as white to escape racial prejudice. Smith's mother had been a slave; his father was white. Three of his children lived to adulthood, and they all apparently passed as white, scholars say.

Greta Blau, Smith's great-great-great-granddaughter, made the connection after she took a course at Hunter College on the history of blacks in New York. She did some research and realized that James McCune Smith the trailblazing black doctor was the same James McCune Smith whose name was inscribed in a family Bible belonging to Martignoni, her grandmother.

Her first response was, "But he was black. I'm white."

Blau, of New Haven, Conn., concluded that after Smith's death, his surviving children must have passed as white, and their children and grandchildren never knew they had a black forbear, let alone such an illustrious one.

Blau contacted all the Smith descendants she could find and invited them to join her Sunday for a ceremony dedicating a handsome tombstone at Smith's grave at Brooklyn's Cypress Hills Cemetery.

Eleven of Smith's descendants went to lay flowers at the cemetery, the final resting place of other notables including baseball player Jackie Robinson and actress Mae West.

Blau's aunt Elizabeth Strazar said she had grown up believing her ethnic heritage was English, Irish, Scottish and French.

"Now I can say I'm English, Irish, African-American and French, which I feel very proud of," she said.

Joanne Edey-Rhodes, the professor whose course led Blau to discover her ancestor, said Blau had written about Smith in her paper for the course.

"She was writing about this person and didn't realize that that was her very own ancestor," Edey-Rhodes said.

Edey-Rhodes, who's black, said that to be black in America in Smith's time "was a horrible condition."

"Black people were a despised group, and to many we still are a despised group in the world," she said. "I think that it is so important that at this time in history, that a family that is classified as white can say, 'I have this African-American ancestor,' and be able to do it without any shame, without having to hide it."

The tombstone dedication was followed by a panel discussion at St. Philip's Episcopal Church in Harlem. Smith was an active member of the church, which was at another location in his lifetime.

The Rev. Craig Townsend, an Episcopal priest and scholar, said Smith's faith in God bolstered his belief that human beings are equal. Townsend passed out copies of an 1850 letter Smith had written to a friend after the death of his 5-year-old daughter.

"After a year of ailment, at times painful and distressing, always obscure, and which she bore with childlike patience, it pleased God to take her home to the Company of Cherubs who continually do Praise Him," Smith wrote.

"This is beautiful," Townsend said.

Dr. Vanessa Northington Gamble, a medical doctor and historian at George Washington University who has championed equal medical treatment for blacks, noted that Smith wrote articles in medical journals and the popular press debunking notions of black inferiority that were mainstream in his time.

"As early as 1859, Dr. McCune Smith said that race was not biological but was a social category," Gamble said. "I feel that I am standing on the shoulders of Dr. James McCune Smith."



Source - AP

Monday, July 26, 2010

Let's Teach Sherrod's Speech in Schools

The Power Of Redemption


Shirley Sherrod's speech, and her story, has lessons for us all.



Peggy Noonan

She was smeared by right-wing media, condemned by the NAACP, and canned by the Obama administration. It wasn't pretty, what was done this week to Shirley Sherrod.

Here's a way to get some good. This September, when school begins, we should make the speech required viewing in the nation's high schools. It packs quite a lesson within quite a story.
====



Sherrods' Story
====================

"My father was a farmer, and growing up on the farm my dream was to get as far away from the farm and Baker County as I could get." She worked "picking cotton, picking cucumbers, shaking peanuts. . . . Doing all that work on the farm, it will make you get an education." She wanted to escape. "The older folks know what I'm talking about."


Go North, she thought. She'd seen black people who'd moved up North return on vacation: "You know how they came back talking, and came back looking." The audience laughed. "I learned later some of those cars they drove home were rented." The audience laughed louder.

She was 17 when her father was killed, in 1965. After that, one night, a cross was burned on their lawn. Her mother had a gun, and black men from throughout the county came and surrounded the white men who surrounded the house. Shirley was terrified and hid in a back room, praying. That night something changed. "I made the decision that I would stay and work."

She wouldn't leave the South but change it. Here she addressed the youthful members of her audience: "Young people, I want you to know when you are true to what God wants you to do, the path just opens up, and things just come to you. God is good, I can tell you that."

But when she made her decision, "I was making that commitment to black people only."
She didn't care about whites.

Almost a quarter-century ago, she was working for a farmers aid group when she was asked to help a couple named Roger and Eloise Spooner. They were losing their farm, and they were white.

Mr. Spooner made a poor impression. He "took a long time talking." She thought he was trying to establish a superior intelligence. "What he didn't know while he was talking all that time . . . was I was trying to decide just how much help I was gonna give him. I was struggling with the fact that so many black people had lost their farmland." So she did enough to meet her responsibilities, but no more. She took him to "a white lawyer," figuring "that his own kind will take care of him."

The lawyer took the farmer's money and, she said, did little else. She assumed things had been taken care of. But in May 1987, Mr. Spooner received a foreclosure notice and he called her, frantic. His house was to be sold a week later on the courthouse steps, and no motion had been filed to stop it.


They all met. The lawyer suggested the farmer retire. "I said, 'I can't believe you said that.'"

Indignant, she set herself to save the Spooners' farm. "That's when it was revealed to me that it's about poor versus those who have," not white versus black. "It opened my eyes." She worked the phones, reached out to those who could help, talked to more lawyers, called officials.

And she saved that farm.

"Working with him," said Ms. Sherrod, "made me see . . . that it's really about those who have versus those who don't." It's helping the frightened and powerless. "And they could be black, they could be white, they could be Hispanic."




She said that 45 years ago she couldn't say what she will say tonight: "I've come a long way. I knew that I couldn't live with hate, you know. As my mother has said to so many, 'If we had tried to live with hate in my heart, we probably be dead now.'" She said it was "sad" that the room was not "full of whites and blacks." She quoted Toni Morrison: We have to get to a point where "race exists but it doesn't matter."

There is beauty in the speech, and bravery too. It was brave because her subject wasn't the nation's failures and your failures but her failures. The beauty is that it deals with the great subject of our lives: how to be better, how to make the world better. It's not a perfect speech—she's tendentious in her support for health care and takes cheap shots at Republicans. And it's not the poor versus the rich, it's the powerful helping the powerless. But it's good.

You know what happened this week. Someone cut the 45-minute speech down to less than two minutes, to the part in which she talked about not wanting to help white people. Andrew Breitbart ran it on one of his websites and made Ms. Sherrod look like a race-game-playing government bully.



And then the Spooners stepped in, and this time they saved her. Is Ms. Sherrod a racist, they were asked. "No way in the world," said Roger Spooner. "She stuck with us." Eloise: "She helped us, so we're helping her."


We are not skeptical enough, of what the news media can cook up in its little devil's den. That anyone can be the victim of a high-tech lynching, and because of this, we have to be careful, slow down, look deeper.

We live in a time when what you say is taped, and those tapes can be cut, and the cuts can be ruinous, and if you think it only happens to the rich and famous, think again. It's coming to a theater near you.


And for students? What can they learn? How about: Individuals can change, just like nations. They can get better, if they want to be.

What's more important than that? What do students need to hear more?

It really can be a teachable moment. It can.


Source: WALL STREET JOURNAL

=============

I COULDN'T AGREE MORE WITH THIS REPORT....THIS IS A STEP TO SHARE VIEWS AMONG OUR YOUNG PEOPLE!


Even non-students can learn a thing or two, including "we're too quick to judge" and we're "not skeptical enough of what news media can cook up in its little devil's den," writes Noonan. As for our country's teenagers, they'd be lucky to soak up this all-important life lesson: "Individuals can change, just like nations. They can get better, if they want to be."




====================


SANKOFA*



Is there a racial double standard here?

Lately, there has been loads of comments by right wing radicals who..
(1) make racist remarks about blacks while also
(2) claiming that blacks are the real racists.

The results shows...because of their racist views ....
We are left with inaccurate or altered statements from people, not doing their homework.

This seems to be a political practice in the US, to take part of what someone says; and manipulate public views. Therefore, shaping public opinion, by airing or printing only half the truth.
==============================



"We find it ironic that in the 100 years of USDA's history of discrimination not a single white person has been dismissed for discrimination," Mikheila Sherrod, wife of Kenyatta Sherrod, said. "However, a black woman who is doing her job well is falsely accused of discrimination in an altered video and it was decided that she can no longer do a credible and nondiscriminatory job of dispensing USDA rural development programs and must resign."

===============================================




Ms. Sherrod termination was immediately aired with a reason of claim to being a racist when now we later find the video tape was edited.

I believe after reading some of the responses to the news of what the media has aired, people are quick to jump the gun, and believe the report instead of waiting it out or doing some research on their own, before rendering a decision.

Sherrod, who is black and was working at the time for a nonprofit group, said she learned that the plight of poverty goes beyond race.


========

The rural development director for the Agriculture Department in Georgia, said she was inclined not to return to the agency. Secretary Tom Vilsack on Wednesday said he was asking her to return to use her expertise to help move the department past its checkered history in race relations, but she told the “Today” show on NBC that she did not want the burden of solving the department’s racial problems to rest entirely on her.




SHERROD: Why am I out?


They asked me to resign. And, in fact, they harassed me as I was driving back to the state office from West Point, Georgia, yesterday. I had at least three calls telling me the White House wanted me to resign.


Shirley Sherrod is asking; How did she get ousted out of the USDA and the NAACP without any explanation?




When I made that commitment I was making that commitment to black people and to black people only," she said in the video released Tuesday. "But you know, God will show you things. ... You realize that the struggle is really about poor people."



She said she would like to have a conversation with Mr. Obama, but does not believe he owes her an apology.

“I’d like to talk to him a little bit about the experiences of people like me, people at the grass-roots level, people who live out there in rural America, people who live in the South,” she said on the show.

“I know he does not have that kind of experience. Let me help him a little bit with how we think, how we live, and the things that are happening.”



Once the truth came out, Ms. Sherrod had gained instant fame and emerged as the heroine of a compelling story about race and redemption.


What's happening here is; she was guilty in the public view, until proven innocent.
It would be great, if the wheels of Justice turned at the same speed on both sides of the spectrum.

To rid our country of racist thoughts and views, especially in the political level.


How and why would you be forced to resign, just because you are relating a story, a 24-year-old incident to make a point? It's beyond me.............

Seems as though it's time for the Nation to DEAL with this can of rotten worms.




"Having reviewed the full tape, spoken to Ms. Sherrod, and most importantly heard the testimony of the white farmers mentioned in this story, we now believe the organization that edited the documents did so with the intention of deceiving millions of Americans."


How could the NAACP render a statement , without a full investigation of the tape?


Sherrod's family, statement about the NAACP, we are disappointed in their actions and rush to judgment. As fellow civil rights activists and Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) members, my mother, my father, Charles Sherrod, and all our family members, have stood in support of the NAACP and fought along side them.



"To see them desert us in our time of need has been difficult — shame on you."




Pretty much everyone else had egg on his face — from the conservative bloggers and pundits who first pushed the inaccurate story.


It remains unclear who edited and released the shorter video.


Sherrod, in a TV interview Tuesday morning, said she lost her job because the Obama administration overreacted to the original story.

"They were not interested in hearing the truth. No one wanted to hear the truth," she said.



"It is in fact a sad day when one cannot speak with honesty of their personal transformation without being condemned."


=====


Bottom line................

If she was simply relating an anecdotal story from 1986 to make a point about how her racial perceptions have changed, give her back her job.






Stop the Character Assassination Of Our People (Blacks) Without Due Process.



HOTEP SANKOFA*



Positive

Education

Always

Correct's

Error

Wednesday, May 19, 2010

Sarah Rector The Richest Black Girl In The World

Sankofa*

Many of Blacks pride themselves in the knowledge that Madame C.J. Walker and Oprah are / were successful millionaires. However, there is a bit of Black History that goes back to 1914 that most of the Black Community has never heard of.

A 10 year old millionaire, made headlines like this .....

"The Kansas City Star reported: “Millions to a Negro Girl - Sarah Rector, 10-Year Old, Has Income of $300 A Day From Oil,”

Little known history brought to light.............





By Stacey Patton


Sarah Rector
========


Her name was Sarah Rector. She was a young black girl born in Indian Territory on March 3, 1902. Her parents were Joseph and Rose Rector

Oil made her rich. Oklahoma Girl With $15,000 A Month Gets Many Proposals – Four White Men in Germany Want to Marry the Negro Child That They Might Share Her Fortune.”

This headline, which appeared in The Kansas City Star on January 15, 1914, was just the first of many newspaper and magazine headlines during the next decade about Sarah Rector, the richest black child known to the world in that era.

In September, 1913, The Kansas City Star reported: “Millions to a Negro Girl - Sarah Rector, 10-Year Old, Has Income of $300 A Day From Oil,” and The Savannah Tribune ran: “Oil Well Produces Neat Income – Negro Girl’s $112,000 A Year.”

In 1914 and 1915, the Salt Lake Telegram, The Oregonian and American Magazine profiled the “bewildered little ten year-old girl” and told of how she inherited her “big income” but still wore tattered dresses and slept each night in a big armchair beside her six siblings in a two-room prairie house in Muskogee, Oklahoma.

By the early 1920s, many newspapers covered the court battles involving white men seeking to become Rector’s guardian to gain control over her estate.

She was one of a group of Creek freedman children who were given land allotments by the U.S. government as part of the Treaty of 1866.

=========

Sarah Rector was born in 1902, near Taft in Indian Territory, the northeastern part of present-day Oklahoma. Though she was “colored,” she was not an African-American child and had no concept of what it meant to be an American citizen. Rector was a descendant of slaves who had been owned by Creek Indians before the Civil War.

In 1866, the Creek Nation signed a treaty with the United States government promising to emancipate their 16,000 slaves and incorporate them into their nation as citizens entitled to “equal interest in the soil and national funds.”

Two decades later, the federally imposed Dawes Allotment Act of 1887 sparked the beginning of the “total assimilation” of the Indians of the so-called Five Civilized Tribes by forcing them to live on individually-owned lots of land instead of communally as they had done for centuries.

There was a great deal of resistance to this plan by the Creeks and other tribes, who viewed it as yet another tactic by the U.S. government to destroy the tribe’s political sovereignty and way of life.

==================================
But as a result of the Dawes Allotment Act, nearly 600 black children, or Creek Freedmen minors as they were called, inherited 160 acres of land, unlike their African-American counterparts who were granted citizenship after slavery but never got that promised “forty acres and a mule.”
==================================


To the surprise of U.S. government officials, a few old and young allottees like Sarah Rector found that their land came with crude oil and other minerals underneath the soil.

When she was born, Rector was given a rough, hilly allotment, considered worthless agriculturally, in Glenpool, 60 miles from where she and her family lived. Her father had petitioned the Muskogee County Court to sell the land, but he was denied because of certain restrictions placed on the land, for which he was required to continue paying taxes.

In 1913, when she was ten years old, large pools of oil were discovered on Rector’s land. One year later, her land produced so much oil that she had already yielded $300,000; her fortune was increasing at a rate of $10,000 per month. Her mother had died years earlier from tuberculosis. In 1914, her father died in prison, leaving her orphaned.

Even before her father’s death, Rector was appointed a guardian who was responsible for managing Rector’s money and providing for her education and care.

The law at the time required full-blooded Indians, black adults and children who were citizens of Indian Territory with significant property and money, to be assigned “well-respected” white guardians who often cheated them out of their lands.

There are stories of swindlers, oil tycoons and other unscrupulous types who kidnapped and murdered the children and adults to get their land.


================================
Unlike other hapless waifs who fell victim to fraud, losing their land and wealth while growing up in a western frontier fraught with violence, fraud and racism, Rector was one of a few black children able to ward off greedy guardians and retain her wealth as an adult.
================================


Rector graduated high school, attended Tuskegee University, and then moved to Kansas City at age 19. She purchased a mansion on Twelfth Street, entertaining Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Joe Louis and Jack Johnson at lavish parties. Not much is known of her later life other than stories of how she splurged on jewelry, fine clothes, and cars.

Much of Rector’s adult life is still needs to be developed, as is the case for the study of the history of black childhood in America. Rector is significant because hers is a vital yet untold story about the complexities or race, childhood, and citizenship on the American frontier in the early 20th century.


================
Source of story:

Sarah Rector The Richest Colored Girl in the World The Defenders Online A Civil Rights Blog
===============

Friday, May 7, 2010

James Hampton Throne Room

Sankofa........
========


Did James Hampton have a "Revelation"? Or was he just a gifted artist?

Can we believe his report? If not, what would drive someone to fervently work day after day to build what was shown to him? At any rate he had "Vision".

I wanted to spotlight this particular brother, because I feel he has accomplished something no one in our time has...........

Em-Hotep*

===========

"The Revelation of Saint John the Devine." He intended, when he was done, to open a storefront ministry with the 180-component liturgical assembly for its centerpiece. Begun about 1950, the toil went on fourteen years in the hours after midnight

The Throne of the Third Heaven of the Nations'


James Hampton (April 8, 1909–November 4, 1964) was an African-American janitor who secretly built a large assemblage of religious art from scavenged materials.[1]

James Hampton was born in Elloree, South Carolina in 1909. His father was a gospel singer and a traveling Baptist preacher. In 1928, Hampton left for Washington, D.C. to join his elder brother Lee. They shared an apartment. James Hampton worked as a short-order cook until 1942 when he was drafted into United States Army Air Forces. He served as a carpenter with the noncombatant 385th Aviation Squadron around the Pacific theatre. He was honorably discharged in 1945 and returned to Washington, D.C.


In 1946, Hampton became a night janitor with the General Services Administration. In 1950 he rented a garage in northwest Washington.



Hampton died of stomach cancer on November 4, 1964 at the Veteran's Hospital in Washington, D.C. He never married.










Part of the passage in the reference to Corinthians in Hampton's photo speaks of "a man in Christ caught up to the third heaven whether in the body, or out of the body, I cannot tell: God knoweth." - Photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Art Museum
======================




A month later Meyer Wertlieb, owner of the garage, came to find out why the rent had not been paid. He knew that Hampton had been building something in the garage. When he opened the door, he found a room filled with many symmetrical, glittering objects surrounding a central throne.




Born the son of an itinerant, self-ordained minister and gospel singer in 1909 at Elloree, South Carolina, Hampton migrated when he was nineteen to the District of Columbia. There he had visions, which he recorded. The earliest note of one that survives reads: "This is true that the great Moses the giver of the 10th commandment appeared in Washington DC, April 11, 1931."



He believed he had the best companionship for which a man could ask. God, Hampton said, instructed him each night as work on The Throne of the Third Heaven of the Nations' Millennium General Assembly advanced toward the dawn.


Hampton's vision of the heaven of the sky, the heaven of the planets, and the heaven of the Almighty, and the gathering of the nations foretold for when Christ returned at the end of days. Then, according to the New Testament, the deity, attended by angels, is to appear on a throne to reign over the New Jerusalem.





For 14 years, Hampton had been building a throne out of various old materials like aluminum and gold foil, old furniture, various pieces of cardboard, old light bulbs, shards of mirror and old desk blotters. He had pinned it together with tacks, glue, pins and tape.

It is unknown whether Hampton considered himself an artist. Hampton's work would be an example of folk or native art — art made by people who are self-taught, who have not studied art techniques, art history, or art theory.








============

The "No. 1" Crown Hampton fashioned for The Throne of the Third Heaven shrine bears a citation from Revelations 7:3, in which one angel tells four others: "Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, till we have sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads." - Photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Art Museum







The text The Throne of the Third Heaven of the Nations' Millennium General Assembly was written on the objects in Hampton's handwriting. He had emblazoned the words Fear Not above the central throne. The garage contained a total of 177 objects. Many of them were inscribed with words out of the biblical Book of Revelation. The objects on the right side of the central throne seem to refer to the New Testament and those on the left side to the Old Testament.




Hampton built his masterwork of metallic foils, paper, plastic, strips of metal cut from coffee cans, jelly jars, flower vases, lightbulbs, wood furniture, cardboard, conduit, glue, tape, tacks, and pins. The foil-wrapped bulbs are a poetic reference to Jesus as the light of the world. When dust settled on the objects, Hampton recovered them instead of cleaning.








==============



The Stand is from the first rank of the three-tiered assembly, its foil-wrapped electric bulbs an apparent poetic reference to the deity as the light of the world. -Photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Art Museum

==============


Photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Art Museum
He said of his project, "That is my life. I'll finish before I die." There were, however, leftover pieces and spare parts when he passed away, never having opened his church, in 1964. No one knew of Hampton's creation save his landlord, who took possession of it all in lieu of back rent. He also got a collection of encoded writings, kept in ring binders or on clipboards, penned by Hampton in a secret alphabet, that have yet to be deciphered. Among them is The Book of the 7 Dispensations by St. James, each page of which ends with the word "Revelation." Colonial



Hampton had also kept a 112-page notebook, titled St James: The Book of the 7 Dispensation, written in his personal code. He referred to himself as St. James and ended each page with the word "Revelation". He had written more text on various pieces of paper and cardboard. Some of them refer to religious visions. Hampton's personal code remains unsolved.

In Hampton's writing he kept the title "Director, Special Projects for the State of Eternity"

The story became public in the December 15, 1964 issue of the Washington Post. Hampton had kept his project secret; his relatives first heard about it when his sister came to claim his body.



=======


Wertlieb donated it to the National Museum of American Art of the Smithsonian Institution (now the Smithsonian American Art Museum) in 1970. All he asked was that his name be listed as the donor. He was promised this by the representatives of the Smithsonian but it never occurred prior to or after it moved to the new Museum. His family has been working on this since his death in 2000.

Friday, April 30, 2010

KING NJOYA INVENTOR OF SHUMOM WRITING SYSTEM





African “Renaissance Man” Writing System


No known alphabet was ever invented by a European."




========================================
King Ibrahim Njoya, distinguished ruler, intellectual, and inventor, was 17th in a long dynasty of kings that ruled over Bamum and its people in western Cameroon dating back to the 14th century. He succeeded his father Nsangu (hn-SAH-hn-goo)[1] and ruled from the year 1889 until his death in 1933. He was succeeded on the throne by his son, Seidou Njimoluh Njoya.




Njoya's mother, Njapdunke, initially acted as regent until he reach majority. His own official rule was further delayed because his father's head was held by an adversary people. By tradition the head or skull of an ancestor is of ceremonial importance to the Bamum. The Germans would aid him in recovering the head and this, along with their allowing him relative independence, caused him to have generally good relations with them. Although an additional factor seems to have been a belief that fighting the Germans would prove counterproductive to his people. Hence he rejected the resistance proposals of Rudolf Duala Manga Bell.[2]

He also initially tried to adapt Western, and particularly German, ways to his society. In one experiment the uniforms of his soldiers were influenced by an idealized version of those worn by the Hussars. This experiment met with disfavor from Germans who either felt mocked or intimidated by Africans trained and dressed in a German-influenced manner.[3] He also studied Christianity for a time, possibly converting to it and also to Islam at a different point. After this he ultimately created his own religion that mixed Christianity, Islam, and Bamum traditional religion.[4]

Later his relations with the French would prove more negative and he died in exile in Yaounde.
















The Shumom people are the people of Cameroon in West Africa. Their country is located between Nigeria in the West, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Congo Brazzaville in the South and Chad and Central African Republic in the North. Within Cameroon, the land of the Shumom people is located in the northern part. It is a land of massif plateau and mountains, valleys and vast forested land, a part of the great equatorial forest of West and Central Africa. Foumban is the administrative capital of the district.

In the beginning of the 20th century or perhaps earlier, the people of Cameroon were able to accomplish one of the most remarkable African achievements of the century: the invention of a self-sustaining and selfgoverning writing system and a printing device to document the histories of the people.



Sultan Ibrahim Njoya, whose father was killed resisting the German invaders, led the invention. The invention that started in the late nineteenth century (I 895 or 1896) was completed by the beginning of the 20' century in 1903. By the time of the Germans arrival, the writing system was in use in conjunction with the Bamum language, which is a tonal language, which means the meanings of a word will vary depending upon the tone with which the sound of the word is uttered. The system went through seven stages of development.


The first stage had over five hundred pictographs and the last stage has had only 35 syllographs, graphs designed to represent all the phonetic and tone sounds in the Bamum language of the Shumom people.










The first version of Shü-mom writing by Ibrahim Njoya (1897)


========



King Ibrahim Njoya developed a writing system called Shü-mom. He used it to compile pharmacopœia, design a calendar.









From a calendar written in 1897 by Ibrahim Njoya






Also, label maps that hold administrative records and legal codes—he even used to write a “Kama Sutra-like” book! Saki Mafundikwa correctly refers to him as a “Renaissance Man”—and most of these achievements took place under German Colonial rule! However, the French form of domination was less “tolerant”:












Detail from the Shü-mom syllabary by King Ibrahim Njoya, ruler of the Bamum (Cameroon, 1880–1931)




King Njoya opened a school in Fumban where many are trained to become literate and promote leaming in their own language. Several manuscripts and documents were produced, including the histories, laws and customs of the people and their neighbors. Two systems of writing were taught at the school: the Royal and the popular scripts.












King Ibrahim Njoya, ruler of the Bamum (Cameroon, 1880–1931) and inventor of Shü-mom writing, surrounded by other kings.




Not long after he had built a magnificent palace, the French took control of Cameroon. Their power was threatened by his achievements. They destroyed the printing press that he invented, destroyed his libraries, and burned many of the books he had written. The French soldiers threw Bamum sacred objects into the street. And finally, in 1931, they sent him into exile in the capital of Yaoundé where he died a broken man in 1933. Over the years, Njoya’s son and his heir Seidou Njimoluh quietly worked to preserve his heritage.




Innovations

=========

Ibrahim Njoya is credited with developing the Bamum script, a syllabic system for writing in the Bamum language. Prior to his reign at the end of the 19th century, the long history of the Bamum people was preserved primarily through oral transmission from one generation to the next in the manner of the African Griot tradition. This was largely true of many other African civilizations of the time. Recognizing the inherent danger of important historical facts being omitted or corrupted, he set out to establish a means of written recording of Bamum history. When his work was completed, his alphabet, called, A-ka-u-ku, contained 73 signs.


Njoya is also credited with having invented a hand-powered mill for grinding corn.









Palace built by King Ibrahim Njoya in 1917 His grandson, Ibrahim Mbombo Njoya, a present-day Sultan in Cameroon and the latest ruler in the Bamoun Dynasty, has established a school in the magnificent palace built by his grandfather, in which schoolchildren are once again learning the Bamum script developed by King Ibrahim Njoya.


==============



Tragically the most important documents are taken away by colonial masters out of Cameroon and they are housed in the French and British Museums. The Germans and later the French did not want to see the flourishing of a literary tradition among the Bamums. Not only they killed or exiled their leaders; they also violently banned the use of Shumom, thereby condemning the people to colonial dark age.

The remarkable accomplishments of the Cameroonians is in line with the long and glorious traditions of the inventions and use of writing systems, perhaps beginning with the hieroglyphics of the Ancient Egyptians whose earliest pictographic writing now dated to be 3400B.C.




The Shumom writing system was invented and used in such a participatory democracy where all the members of the society are asked by the king to participate in the project. King Njoya, the able and visionary leader, ordered his constituency to contribute symbols for the writing system.










Shü-mom “Vowels





In so doing not only he succeeded in ensuring a wide range of ideographic ideas to choose from, but he also paved the way for eventual acceptance of the system by the whole nation. This process combined with mythology would place the system as permanent cultural asset and legacy of the people.

King Njoya mythologized the invention of the Shumom writing system as follows:

"When King Njoya was asleep one night he had a dream. A man came and before him saying: 'Oh King, take a wide, flat piece of wood and mark on it a man's hand. Then wash the board and drink the water.' The king took a plank and made a mark as the man directed, and handed it to that man who also made a mark thereon and returned the plank to the King. In the dream there were many people sitting around, all schoolboys, and they had paper in their hands. They all made marks thereon and passed on what they marked to their neighbors.

"When it was daylight the King took a wide plank and marked thereon a man's hand. He then washed the plank with water and drank it, as the man in the dream directed. The King now summoned many of his courtiers and told them to mark out many things and to give names to all these things so that the result would be a book. In this way man's speech could be inaudibly recorded.

"Njoya asked whether the populace would be able to understand this silent speech. His courtiers replied: 'No, if things are done as you wish, no one will be able to interpret these marks.' Njoya asked whether it would not be as well to carry out his suggestions, and they replied: 'It is no use, no one will understand the meaning of these marks.' Njoya said to them: 'Go, sleep and ponder over the matter till it become clear.'

"The next day he summoned all his courtiers again and asked them, saying: 'What now do you think about this matter, this book business?' They replied that if he did as he suggested no one would be able to interpret the marks. Njoya said he agreed with them, and told them to leave the matter with him and he would try, and if the problem were too much for him he would abandon it. Nevertheless his courtiers were to make many signs, all different, and to bring them to him. He also made many signs.

"The King now collected all these signs, and called in Moma and Isiah (two Mohammedan Mallams) to help him plan. Five times he consulted with these two and by then he understood enough. When Njoya consulted with them again the problem was solved. Then he called together many of his courtiers and taught them the signs. Many people leamt and King Njoya was very pleased."2

King Njoya's magnum opus in the royal script ran to 1,100 pages and its replica is now with the Pitt-Rivers Museum of Oxford. The published text regarding the writing system was the combined works of MDW Jeffreys and Madam Dugast of France in 1950 under the title: L'Ecriture des Bamum and it was published in France.

King Njoya had also successfully surveyed and produced a map of his nation. This is also a remarkable feat by itself. Just imagine the natural and progressive development of the people of Cameroon without the rude and violent and destructive intervention of European colonialism!

The African Writing Systems Website Project presents the original and the final forms of the Shumom writing system. The original pictographs are truly magical with their artistic renderings of the lives and imaginations of the people. It was a joy reproducing them in their entirety.

Thursday, April 29, 2010

THE MIS-EDUCATION OF DR. HENRY LOUIS GATES JR.














Harvard Professor Henry Louis Gates Jr. recently wrote an interesting piece for the New York Times called, "Ending the Slavery Blame Game." In the piece, Gates argues that the fight for reparations is convoluted and some what mitigated by the fact that African elites participated in the slave trade.


Sorry Dr. Gates, but I must respectfully (or perhaps not so respectfully) disagree.

====


Exerts from his article......

=============


Ending the Slavery Blame-Game - By Professor Henry Gates.



Queen Njinga, the brilliant 17th-century monarch of the Mbundu, waged wars of resistance against the Portuguese but also conquered polities as far as 500 miles inland and sold her captives to the Portuguese. When Njinga converted to Christianity, she sold African traditional religious leaders into slavery, claiming they had violated her new Christian precepts.


=============
Sankofa's rebuttal...

She compromised, until she could free her people eventually. They both agreed, Zhinga would convert to Christianity help the Portuguese with the slave trade, also, help to control a war like clan jaga. Portuguese wouldn't remove their troops from Mbdunda. Didn't recognized Ngola kingdom in Angola. During the war the Portugese government meeting, The Queen stated ...

She would release them when they release her people from Brazil.


===============
More from Pro. Gates......


Some Africans were driven to this only by the unprecedented profits offered by greedy European countries.”


GATES ARTICLE IN NY TIMES QUOTES.....Ghana exported slaves and used the profits to import gold.

===============

The Complete version of truth is.....



Until March 1957, Ghana was known to much of the world as the "Gold Coast". The Portuguese who came to Ghana in the 15th Century found so much Gold between the rivers Ankobra and the Volta that they named the place Mina – meaning Mine.




The Gold Coast was later adopted by English colonists. The French, impressed with the trinkets worn by the coastal people, named the area to the west “Cote d’Ivoire,” or Ivory Coast.



Ghana was also the site of the Empire of Ashanti which was perhaps the most advanced black state in sub-Sahara Africa. It is said that at its peak, the King of Ashanti could field 500,000 troops




ELMINA CASTLE ...Where Africans were kept until their time to be transported to the New World.

In 1481, King John II of Portugal commissioned Diogo d’Azambuja to build Elmina Castle, which was completed the next year.









Did Africans devise a map or plan to capture slaves and imprison them in Elmina?


=================


How and why would Ghana want to sell slaves for gold , when they were known as the GOLD COAST?



=========================================



Bottom Line.......................................



EUROPEANS DEVISED A PLAN OF EXECUTION, MAPPED IT, SORTED OUT MONEY AND APPROVAL. THROUGH THE POPE WHICH HAD GIVEN HIS BLESSINGS ON SLAVERY.
THE QUEEN SPONSORED THE SLAVE SHIPS AND CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS MAPPED THE WAY TO THE BEGINNING OF THE MOST HEINOUS CRIME TO THE AFRICAN CONTINENT. AKA "The NEW WORLD".



YES THEN AND NOW WE CAN STILL PUT THE BLAME WHERE IT ALWAYS BEEN, REGARDLESS WHO AIDED THEM IN THE CAPTURE OF AFRICANS.


More exerts from Dr. Gates article.............
The historians John Thornton and Linda Heywood of Boston University estimate that 90 percent of those shipped to the New World were enslaved by Africans and then sold to European traders
===========


Rebuttal
:
THE 90% OF AFRICANS THAT WERE CAPTURED BY AFRICANS STATEMENT - IS AN ABSURD ESTIMATION, NOT AN ACTUAL FACTUAL ACCOUNT OF TRUE STATISTICS. AND SHOULDN'T BE APPLIED TO THE TRUTH.

In order for this to have happened, there would have been africans on every corner of Africa. There is no way of knowing, even an estimation number would proven to be way off .
===========================


IT'S AMAZING.... how a Professor of Harvard hasn't done the full research on the slave trade and Zhinga full story. Most people I find read half of the Truth - THEN RUN AWAY WITH IT. .... mind wrenching.


Gates also does the reparations discussion a serious disservice by reducing it to a "blame game." The fact that African slaves built America for free then in turned sold as Branded Cattle on WALL STREET.....This is not about blaming anyone, it's about "Reality"



Seek out the truth of Alkebulan (Africa) history for yourself. I kinda thank NY Times for highlighting Mr. Henry Louis Gates article because, it caused me to further investigate the truth.



I am under the assumption that by "ending the slavery blame game," Gates is arguing that we should stop blaming the U.S. government and white America for the rape, murder, castration, lynching and beating of our ancestors.


What Gates is revealing to us is nothing but a "smoke screen".







Monument to the Gate of No Return on the Slave Road at Ouidah. A slave who passed this point was not coming back.

======================







Monument marking the location of the Tree of Forgetfulness.

The belief was that if a male walked 9 times around the tree (or a female 7 times) then their memories were erased ready for their future as slaves.

============



Did Africans coined a TREE OF FORGETFULNESS and make Africans march around this tree, in hopes Africans would forget themselves and their history? NO




Did America enslave Africans for many (Hundreds) of years? Yes.

Even after the law to end slavery past, didn't parts of the South refused to cooperate?




This bronze shows how noisy slaves were trained to be silent.


This is what they want us to forget!
====

Did they profit from it? Yes.

Did they repay those they enslaved? No.

Also, tell me where was Pro. Gates comments when the Jews got reparations for slavery?
=========

Sankofa.....

In my opinion reparations can be in many forms, educational scholarships, paid training, etc... there are many avenue's we all can explore. Engaging solutions to our community needs.

================





Monument to the Tree of Return. Walking 3 times around this tree would bring the slave's spirit back to Africa after death.

==============


DO THE MATH!

Even responsibility of the slave trade, should NOT fall on Africans.



=====================


March 2, 1807

The U.S. Congress sought to end international slave trade by passing an act to make it unlawful “to import or bring into the United States or the territories thereof from any foreign kingdom, place, or country, any negro, mulatto, or person of colour, with intent to hold, sell, or dispose of such negro, mulatto, or person of colour, as a slave, or to be held to service or labour." Domestic traffic in slaves was still legal and unregulated.



SLAVE POSTER
==============


















The first shipload of African captives to North America had arrived at Jamestown, Virginia, in August 1619, and the first American slave ship, named Desire, sailed from Marblehead, Massachusetts, in 1637. In total, nearly 15 million blacks were transported as slaves to the Americas. The African continent, meanwhile, lost approximately 50 million human beings to slavery and related deaths. Despite the federal prohibition and because the slave trade was so profitable, an additional 250,000 slaves would be imported illegally by the time the Civil War began.




===============

EM-HOTEP


SPIRIT of SANKOFA*

===============

Sunday, April 25, 2010

BLACK WALL STREET - Little Africa 1921

Many of Blacks that resides in the U.S., dont realize that there is so much history of Blacks conquest for Independence. A Conquest for Their Own Economy, A Thriving Community of Businesses.

As a whole on many levels developing and building a strong economy within their own little town. Only to have it attacked and burned to the ground. In hopes that the Black Community will never rise to that threshold, risen above racism, poverty again.

This story which is a True account in US history. Is one that should be a Memory in all our minds, and taken as a lesson to thrive and rise up again, like the Pheonix from the ashes.

What We as a people have to realize is..... in order to rise above flood waters, even in this day and time, we need an Economy of our own. Our brothers and sisters knew this. In order to be perfectly "Free" WE CAN NOT REMAIN Depended on others.

Even though the military and others were sent to wage war against this "Thriving Independent Black Commmunity"

JUST THINK OF WHAT THEY DID ACCOMPLISHED DISPITE THE ODDS. Dispite JELOUSY Hatred and STRIFE.......

I believe this is a solution to our problems.

Read and pass this on.......................


============
Spirit Of Sankofa*

Em-Hotep

============










The Date Was June 1, 1921, “BLACK WALLSTREET”

The name fittingly given to one of the most affluent All-BLACK Communities in America, was bombed from the air and Burned to the ground by mobs of envious Whites.

In a period spanning fewer than 12 hours, a once thriving Black Business District in northern Tulsa lay smoldering — a model Community destroyed and a major African-American economic movement resoundingly defused.

The Night’s Carnage left some 3,000 African Americans Dead and over 600 Successful Businesses Lost.

Among these were 21 Churches, 21 Restaurants, 30 Grocery Stores and 2 Movie Theaters, plus A Hospital, A Bank, a Post Office, Libraries, Schools, Law Offices, a half dozen Private Airplanes and even A Bus System.

As could have been expected, the impetus behind it all was the infamous Ku Klux Klan, working in consort with
Ranking City Officials and many other Sympathizers.

The best description of BLACK WALL STREET, or Little Africa as it was also known, would be to compare it to a mini – Berverly Hills.

It was the golden door of the BLACK Community during the early 1900’s, and it proved that African Americans
could create a successful infrastructure.

That’s What BLACK WALLSTREET, Was All About.

The Dollar circulated 36 to 100 Times, sometimes taking a year for currency to leave the Community.

Now a Dollar leaves the BLACK Community in 15-minutes.

As Far As Resources, there were Ph.D.’s residing in Little Africa, BLACK Attorneys and Doctors.

One Doctor was Dr. Berry who owned the Bus System. His average income was $500 a Day, a hefty pocket change in 1910.

It was a time when the entire State of Oklahoma had only 2 Airports, yet 6 BLACKS, Owned their own Planes.
It was a very Fascinating Community.

The mainstay of the Community was to educate every child.

Nepotism was the one word they Believed in. And that’s what we need to get back to.

The main thoroughfare was Greenwood Avenue, and it was intersected by Archer and Pine Streets.

From the First Letters in each of those Three Names you get G.A.P. And that’s where the renowned R&B Music
Group The GAP Band got its name. They’re From Tulsa.

BLACK WALLSTREET was a prime example of the typical, BLACK Community in America that did businesses, but it was in an unusual location.

You See, At The Time, Oklahoma was set aside to be a BLACK and Indian State.

There were over 28 BLACK Townships there. One third of the People who traveled in the terrifying “Trail of Tears” along side the Indians between 1830 and 1842 were BLACK People.

The Citizens of this proposed Indian and BLACK State chose A BLACK Governor, A Treasurer from Kansas named McDade.

But the Ku Klux Klan said that if he assumed Office they’d Kill Him within 48 hours. A lot of BLACKS owned Farmland, and many of them had gone into the Oil Business. The Community was so tight and Wealthy because they traded Dollars hand-to-hand, and because they were dependent upon one another as a result of the Jim Crow Laws.

It was not unusual that if a Resident’s Home accidentally Burned down, it could be rebuilt within a few weeks by Neighbors.

This was the type of scenario that was going on Day-to-Day on BLACK WALL STREET.

When BLACK’s intermarried into the Indian Culture, some of them received their promised ‘40 Acres and A Mule‘
and with that came whatever Oil was later found on the Properties.













On BLACK WALLSTREET, A lot of Global Business was conducted, The Community flourished from the Early 1900s until June 1, 1921.

That’s when the Largest Massacre of Nonmilitary Americans in the History of this Country took place, and it was lead by The KU KLUX KLAN.

Imagine walking out of your front door and seeing 1,500 Homes being Burned. It must have been amazing.

Survivors we interviewed think that the whole thing was planned because during the time that all of this was going on; White Families with their children stood around the borders of their Community and watched The Massacre.








The looting and everything — much in the same manner they would watch a Lynching. The Riots weren’t caused by anything Black or White. It was caused by jealousy. A lot of White Folks had come back from World War I and they were poor.

When they looked over into The BLACK Communities and realized that BLACK Men who Fought in The War had come Home as Heroes, and that helped to trigger the destruction.

It cost the BLACK Community everything, and not a single dime of restitution – No Insurance Claims – has been awarded the victims to this day. Nonetheless, they rebuilt.

We estimate 1,500 to 3,000 People were Killed and we know that a lot of them were Buried in Mass Graves all around the City. Some were thrown into the river.

As a matter of fact, at 21st Street and Yale Avenue, where there now stands a Sears Parking Lot, that corner used to be a Coal Mine. They threw a lot of the Bodies into the Shafts.

Beulah Smith and Kenny Booker, Two Elderly Oklahomans, lived through one of the Worst Race Riots in U.S. History, a rarely mentioned 1921 Tulsa Blood Bath that officially took Thousands of African-American Lives.

The Tulsa Race Riot Commission

Formed two years ago to determine exactly what happened, will consider next week the Controversial Issue of what, if any, Reparations should be paid to the Known Survivors of the Riot, a Group of less than 100 that includes Beulah Smith, now 92, and Kenny Booker, 86.

‘The Gun Went Off, The Riot Was On‘

On the Night of May 31,1921, mobs called for the Lynching of Dick Rowland, A Black Man who shined shoes, after hearing reports that on the previous Day He had Assaulted Sarah Page, A White Woman, in the elevator she operated in a downtown building.











A Local Newspaper, printed a Fabricated Story that Rowland tried to rape Page. In An Editorial, the same newspaper said a Hanging was Planned for that Night.

As Groups of both Blacks and Whites converged on the Tulsa Courthouse, a White Man in the Crowd Confronted an Armed Black Man, A War Veteran, who had joined with other Blacks to protect Rowland.











A Fabricated Newspaper Story Triggered The Violent Riots that left Hundreds, if not Thousands, Dead. Comm. Member Eddie Faye Gates told CNN what happened next. “This White Man,” she said, Asked The Black Man, “What Are You Doing With This Gun?”

“I’m going to use it if I have to,” the Black Man said, according to Gates, “and (the White Man) said, ‘No, you’re not. Give it to me,’ and he tried to take it. The gun went off, the White Man was Dead, The Riot Was On.”

Truckloads of Whites Set Fires and Shot Blacks on sight.

When the smoke lifted the Next Day, more than 1,400 Homes and Businesses in Tulsa ’s Greenwood District, a prosperous area known as the “Black Wall Street,” lay in ruins.

Saturday, April 17, 2010

THE WHITEWASHING OF BLACK HISTORY IN TEXT BOOKS




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Now that Black History Month has come to a close, it’s definitely not time to go into hibernation until next year. Black History is vital to the Black Community. If it wasn't it wouldn't be in the stage of being white washed more than it is now. It is time for Blacks to see the Importants of "Origins". ESPECIALLY THEIR OWN.

Right wingers in Texas omit minorities from textbooks. ...

Battles are in progress to erase the efforts that has been made, in educating our Children and Our People. Years of sincere efforts, by our studied Historians springing forth the awareness to "KNOW THY SELF"!. Try to visualize this!


Now there is a real threat that things may be in reverse mode. There is a concerted effort in Texas to drag the history books back about 50 years. And portrayals of slavery and the Civil Rights Movement are on the chopping block.

A detailed article by Mariah Blake in the Washington Monthly lays out how Christian conservatives have taken over the Texas State Board of Education board and are busily rewriting history.







Texas has an outsized impact on the rest of the country when it comes to textbooks because it's so big. Because of its huge purchasing capacity, publishers work to meet standards set by the Lone Star state’s board of education, then will sell those same books to everybody else for the next 10 years.


As the Washington Monthly reports:

While they concede that people like Martin Luther King Jr. deserve a place in history, they argue that they shouldn't’t be given credit for advancing the rights of minorities. As (one board member) put it, “Only majorities can expand political rights in America’s constitutional society.” Ergo, any rights people of color have were handed to them by whites—in his view, mostly white Republican men









Whether you are a parent or not have kids in public schools, the prospect of Texas conservatives determining what students across the country learn or more importantly, don't learn, is cause for concern.


Ask yourself--- Are American students taught enough about the role of Blacks in American history?




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The attempt on strickening Black History /whitewashing literature, can not extract Blacks from the BIBLE.
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Ham was one of Noah's three sons, Shem and Japhet were the other two. Noah's descendants repopulated the Earth after the Great Flood. Ham's descendants are traced to the families of Africa.

Ham (Khawm) in Hebrew means BLACK, HOT AND BURNT. Ham had four sons, CUSH (Ethiopians / Cushites), MIZRAIM (Egyptians / Khemet), PHUT (Ancient Libyans or Somalian), and CANAAN (Canaanite, the original inhabitants of the Land of Israel) Genesis 10:6-19.


All four of Ham's sons and their descendants settled in and around the Continent of Africa. This includes the so called "Middle East" that is also a part of the Continent of Africa.


Let us begin with the story of Jacob's second Youngest son Joseph, and his time in Egypt. Joseph was one of the twelve sons of Jacob (Yaaqob in Hebrew). Jacob sired Joseph in his old age, and he was clearly his favorite son. This caused Joseph's brothers to become jealous of him. Ultimately, their jealousy resulted in Joseph being sold by Arab merchants as a slave.

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Gen.10:8 Cush was the father of Nimrod, the first mighty warrior on the earth. 9 He was a mighty hunter whom the LORD blessed. (God’s Word Translation)
10 The first cities in his kingdom were Babylon, Erech, Accad, and Calneh in Shinar Babylonia. 11 He went from that land to Assyria and built Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir, Calah,

We know that Nimrod was the son of Cush. Babylon had two elements in her population in the beginning. The northern Accadians and the southern Sumerians were both Cushites. The finds of recent explorations in the Mesopotamian valley reveal that these ancient inhabitants were black, with the cranial formation of Ethiopians. The art, science and culture of the earlier unmixed Chaldeans was Cushite.

Rawlinson speaking in his Ancient Monarchies decided that the ruins of Chaldea show Cushite origin. The names of Chaldea and Ethiopia are linked in a way to render any other interpretation impossible. The great city of the earlier period was Niffer a corruption of Nimrod. The language of the ruins is radically different from the Semitic tongue of the Assyrian empire.


Over the course of time Joseph became Viceroy of Egypt and was second in command to Pharaoh in authority. There was a famine in Canaan, where Jacob and his sons lived. (Pharaoh had a dream which Joseph interpreted. His dream told of the forthcoming famine and gave Egypt an opportunity to prepare by storing food.) So, Jacob sent his ten sons to Egypt to buy bread. When Joseph's ten brothers came into Egypt they were brought before him. Joseph recognized his brothers, but they didn't recognize him (Genesis 42:1-8). Since the biblical Egyptians were a black-skinned people, Joseph had to be black-skinned also.


If he were white skinned, as over half the world's Jews are today, his brothers would have recognized him easily among the black- skinned Egyptians, or they would have been very curious as to why this white-skinned Hebrew was ruling in Egypt. But his brothers just thought Joseph was another Egyptian. The ancient Egyptians of Joseph time were indeed what we know today as black skinned. This is a fact attested to by many.


Gerald Massey, English writer and author of the book, Egypt the Light of the World wrote, "The dignity is so ancient that the insignia of the Pharaoh evidently belonged to the time when Egyptians wore nothing but the girdle of the Negro." (p 251) Sir Richard Francis Burton, a 19th century English explorer, writer and linguist in 1883 wrote to Gerald Massey, "You are quite right about the "AFRICAN" origin of the Egyptians. I have 100 human skulls to prove it." Scientist, R. T. Prittchett, states in his book The Natural History of Man, "In their complex and many of the complexions and in physical peculiarities the Egyptians were an "AFRICAN" race (p 124-125).


The Ancient Greek historian Herodotus, who visited Egypt in the 5th century B.C.E., saw the Egyptians face-to-face and described them as black-skinned with woolly hair.

Anthropologist, Count Constatin de Volney (1727-1820), spoke about the race of the Egyptians that produced the Pharaohs. He later paid tribute to Herodotus' discovery when he said: "The ancient Egyptians were true Negroes of the same type as all native born Africans.

That being so, we can see how their blood mixed for several centuries with that of the Romans and Greeks, must have lost the intensity of it's original color, while retaining none the less the imprint of its original mold. We can even state as a general principle that the face (referring to The Sphinx) is a kind of monument able, in many cases, to attest to or shed light on historical evidence on the origins of the people."

The fact that the ancient Egyptians were black-skinned prompted Volney to make the following statement: "What a subject for meditation, just think that the race of black men today our slaves and the object of our scorn, is the very race to which we owe our arts, science and even the use of our speech." The testimony of the ancients, the Bible, many Egyptologists, along with archaeology confirms that the Egyptians during biblical times were a BLACK-SKINNED PEOPLE.

This is important to know, as we continue, we will see that the bible on multiple occasions describes the ancient Hebrews as looking like the Egyptians. Next, in Genesis chapter 50 verses 7-11, scripture will describes ALL the Hebrews as looking like the ancient Egyptians. After Jacob (who's name was changed to Ysrayl - Israel) died in the Land of Egypt, all the Hebrews and Egyptians went down to the Land of Canaan to bury him (He asked his son to bury him in the Land of Canaan with his forefathers Genesis 49:29-30). Verses 7-8 state that all the elders of Pharaoh's house and all the elders of the Land of Egypt along with all the Hebrews (except for their small children) went down. VERSE 9 says,


"It was a very great company." VERSE 11 says, that the Canaanite saw the funeral procession and said "THIS IS A GRIEVOUS MOURNING TO THE EGYPTIANS". But remember this was a mixed multitude of Hebrews and Egyptians going to bury a HEBREW, and the Canaanite identified them both as Egyptians. WHY? Because the Canaanites saw a great company of black-skinned people who were all probably dressed according to the customs and fashions of Egypt, and they all looked liked native (black) Egyptians.

If the Hebrews were a white-skinned people, as we have been led to believe, the Canaanite who were familiar with both the Hebrews and Egyptians would have acknowledged them both by saying, "THIS IS A GRIEVOUS MOURNING TO THE EGYPTIANS AND HEBREWS." The scripture goes on to say that the Canaanite named the place where they saw this great mourning for a HEBREW Abel Mizraim which means the meadow of Egypt/Mizraim or Mourning of the Egyptians. Now let's go to the most famous story, of the Hebrews sojourn in Egypt, which would be the story of Moses.


Many years after the death of Joseph, His brothers and all that generation that entered Egypt during the time he was viceroy. The Hebrew population in Egypt grew tremendously. Because of this, they were no longer looked upon as friendly neighbors.

Pharaoh decreed that all Hebrew males are killed at birth (Exodus 1), this brings us directly to the story of Moses. Moses was born a Hebrew - Israelite from the tribe of Levi (Exodus 2:1-3). He spent 40 years in the House of Pharaoh (Acts 7:23) and from the time he was an infant, passed as the Pharaoh's grandson (Exodus 2: 6, 10). This was during the same time that Pharaoh ordered all Hebrew males under the age of two to be killed. So, if Pharaoh, was a black-skinned descendant of Khawm / Ham, which he was, it would of course follow that Moses was black-skinned also.






Many Scholars say the Pharaoh who was on the throne of Egypt at the time of Moses' birth, was Pharaoh Seti I. He was the father of Rameses II, the Pharaoh of the oppression, also known as Rameses the Great. George Rawlinson, an English author wrote a book entitled History of Egypt. On page 252, he gives a description of Seti I. He states: "SETI'S FACE WAS THOROUGHLY AFRICAN. HE HAD A STORMY FACE WITH A DEPRESSED FLAT NOSE, THICK LIPS AND HEAVY CHIN.”

Moses had to have the same physical characteristics because again, he was raised in the house of Pharaoh, as the grandson of Pharaoh, when Pharaoh ordered all other Hebrew males to be killed at birth. If the Israelites were a white-skinned people, how could Moses the Hebrew survive (secretly) in the house of Pharaoh among black-skinned Egyptians for 40 years, and not be noticed.


Furthermore, after giving the decree (himself) to kill all Hebrew males, how could Pharaoh face and rule over his people, if he knowingly had one living in his house with all the rights and privileges of his own family? Moses survived 40 years in the palace of Pharaoh because he was a black-skinned man just as the Egyptians were. Just as the Canaanite couldn't tell the Hebrews from the Egyptians. Pharaoh couldn't either, or Moses would have been killed instantly.



These forces cannot write Blacks out of history, we just need to learn more Ourselves and treat it like it is OUR LOST TREASURES!

EM-HOTEP
LETS LEARN EVEN MORE!

Friday, April 16, 2010

Why study the history of Mathematics in Africa S. of the Sahara?






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Why study the history of mathematics in Africa south of the Sahara?

There are many reasons which make the general study of the history of mathematics both necessary and attractive (see e.g. Struik, 1980). There exist important additional reasons which make the research on the history of mathematics in Africa south of the Sahara indispensable.
African countries face the problem of low 'levels' of attainment in mathematics education. Math anxiety is widespread. Many children (and teachers too?) experience mathematics as a rather strange and useless subject, imported from outside Africa. One of the causes thereof is that the goals, contents and methods of mathematics education are not or not sufficiently adapted to the cultures and needs of the African peoples, as stresses the first Secretary-General of the AMU Commission for Mathematical Instruction (Eshiwani, 1979, 346; cf. Eshiwani, 1983; Jacobsen, 1984). Today's existing African educational system is "unadapted and elitist" and "favours foreign consumption without generating a culture that is both compatible with the original civilization and truly promising" (Ki-Zerbo, 1990, 4; cf. El-Tom on mathematics education and the selection of élites, 1984, 3).

The delegates to the Vth Conference of Ministers of Education and those Responsible for Economic Planning in African Member States declared that educational policy should be designed to "restore to their rightful status the African cultural heritage and the traditional social and human values that hold potential for the future " (MINEDAF,1982, 41). The mathematical heritage of the peoples of Africa has to be valued and African mathematical traditions should be 'embedded' into the curriculum (Cf.e.g. Ale, 1989; Doumbia, 1984, 1989b, Gerdes, 1985a, 1986a, 1986b, 1988d, 1990c; Langdon, 1989, 1990; Mmari, 1978; Njock, 1985; Shirley, 1986a, 1986b). And as this scientific legacy of Africa south of the Sahara is little known, research in this area constitutes a challenge to which an urgent response is necessary (Njock, 1985, 4). Also African-Americans and minorities of African descent all over the world feel the need to know their cultural-mathematical heritage (Campbell, 1977; Frankenstein & Powell, 1989; Zaslavsky, 1973, etc.; Ratteray, 1991). More generally, both in highly industrialised and in Third World countries it is becoming more and more recognised that it is necessary to multi-culturalise the mathematics curriculum in order to improve its quality, to augment the cultural confidence of all pupils and to combat racial and cultural prejudice (cf. e.g. D'Ambrosio, 1985a; Ascher, 1984; Bishop, 1988a, b; Joseph, 1987; Mellin-Olsen, 1986; NCTM, 1984; Nebres, 1983; Zaslavsky, 1989a, 1991).

Broad conception of 'history' and 'mathematics'

Most histories of mathematics devote only a few pages to Ancient Egypt and to northern Africa during the 'Middle Ages´. Generally they ignore the history of mathematics in Africa south of the Sahara and give the impression that this history either did not exist or, at least, is not knowable / traceable, or, stronger still, that there was no mathematics at all south of the Sahara (cf. Lumpkin, 1983; Njock, 1985). "Even the Africanity of Egyptian mathematics is often denied" (Shirley, 1986b, 2). Prejudice and narrow conceptions of both 'history' (cf. Ki-Zerbo, 1980, General Introduction) and of 'mathematics' form the basis of such (eurocentric) views (cf. Joseph, 1987, 1991).








At the 17th International Congress of Historical Sciences, Humphrey (1990, 4) stressed that "Any narrow definition of science in modern terms would make it difficult for us to understand its origins and the variable forms it has taken in different cultures". In the case of mathematics, authors like Ale, D'Ambrosio, Ascher & Ascher, Bishop, Doumbia, Gerdes, Njock, Shirley and Zaslavsky consider 'mathematics' as a pan-cultural phenomenon and propose a broad conception, including counting, locating, measuring, designing, playing, explaining, classifying, sorting...

Pioneer study

Zaslavsky's ' Africa Counts ' is a pioneer work in the area of the history of mathematics south of the Sahara. She offers her book as "a preliminary survey of a vast field awaiting investigation" (1973a, vi). Her task was not an easy one: in face of "the inadequacy of easily accessible material... ", she had to search "the literature of many disciplines - history, economics, ethnology, anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, art and oral tradition - ..." (1973a, vi).
She used a broad perspective on mathematics; her study deals with, what she calls, the 'sociomathematics' of Africa: she considers "the applications of mathematics in the lives of African people, and, conversely, the influence that African institutions had upon the evolution of mathematics" (1973a, 7). The concept of sociomathematics may be considered a forerunner of the concept of ethnomathematics. It is ethnomathematics as a discipline that studies mathematics (and mathematical education) as embedded in their cultural context - the (development of) different forms of mathematical thinking which are proper to cultural groups, like ethnic, professional, and age groups.

For the (possible) relationships between ethnomathematics and the history of mathematics, see (in general) D'Ambrosio (1985b) and (in the case of Africa) Shirley (1986b) and Gerdes (1990e).
The application of historical and ethnomathematical research methods has contributed, as will be shown, to the knowledge and understanding of the history of mathematics in Africa, or, at least, of some further mathematical elements in African traditions, in addition to the information gathered in ' Africa Counts '.

The beginnings

Zaslavsky presented as early evidence for (proto-)mathematical activity in Africa a bone dated at 9000-6500 B.C., dug up at Ishango (Zaire). The bone has what appear to be tallying marks on it, notches carved in groups. The bone's discoverer, De Heinzelin, interpreted the patterns of notches as an "arithmetical game of some sort, devised by a people who had a number system based on 10 as well as a knowledge of duplication and of prime numbers". Marshack, on the contrary, explains the bone as early lunar phase count. Their views, summarized in (Zaslavsky, 1973a, 17-19), are reproduced recently in (Fauvel & Gray, 1987, 5-7). Later, the dating of the Ishango bone has been reevaluated, from about 8000 B.C. to 20,000 B.C. (Marshack, 1991). Zaslavsky (1991b) raises the question "who but a woman keeping track of her cycles would need a lunar calendar?" and concludes that "women were undoubtedly the first mathematicians!".


Bogoshi, Naidoo & Webb report in 1987 on a still much older "mathematical artefact": "A small piece of the fibula of a baboon, marked with 29 clearly defined notches, may rank as the oldest mathematical artefact known. Discovered in the early seventies during an excavation of Border Cave in the Lebombo Mountains between South Africa and Swaziland, the bone has been dated to approximately 35000 B.C.". They note that the bone "resembles calendar sticks still in use today by Bushmen clans in Namibia" (1987, 294).
A research project looking for numerical representations in San (Bushmen) rock art has recently been started by Martinson (University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa). From the surviving San hunters in Botswana - "the oldest pattern of life found in the world today..." - , Lea and her students at the University of Botswana have collected information. Her papers describe counting, measurement, time reckoning, classification, tracking and some mathematical ideas in San technology and craft. The San developed very good visual discrimination and visual memory as needed for survival in the harsh environment of the Kalahari desert (Lea, 1987, 1989, 1990a, 1990b).



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The middle and upper reaches of the Niger River have played an important role in West African history. This area in Western Sudan was a base for the camel caravan routes crossing the Sahara to the Mediterranean, while a black nation is reputed to have existed there from around the 3rd or 4th centuries A.C.
The Mali Empire flourished in the 13th century, with the city of Timbuktu on the banks of the Niger River as an intellectual, artistic and religious center. The Songhai Empire reigned in the 15th century, followed notably by the Bambara Kingdom in the 17th and 18th centuries. From the latter half of the 16th century, Mali experienced a period under Moroccan control in its north party.
In the 19th century the French army advanced into the region, making Mali a part of French West Africa from 1898 to 1960. Mali became an autonomous republic within the French Community in 1958, formed the Mali Federation with Senegal in April 1959, and gained independence in its own right on September 22, 1960.