Thursday, April 1, 2010
SCIENCE CONTRIBUTIONS FROM BLACK AMERICANS
The contributions of blacks in the field of science have been a missing chapter in the narrative of America’s scientific and technological advancement. From the beginning, African Americans were part of America’s scientific endeavors: Benjamin Banneker produced the blueprint for Washington DC; Norbert Rillieau, chemical engineer, revolutionized the sugar industry by building a refining system; Elijah McCoy whose name became synonymous with high-quality (The Real McCoy) patented more than fifty inventions used by the railroad companies; Grandville T. Woods, invented the trolley car system and helped invent the light bulb, telegraph and telephone systems; Lewis Latimer produced the drawing for the telephone and wrote the world’s first book on electric lighting; Jan Matzeliger, revolutionized the shoe industry with the invention of the shoe lasting machine, and Garrett Morgan invented the gas mask and traffic signal. The conditions under which blacks created and invented helps to better appreciate the contributions of African American to science and the advancement of America.
Understanding the properties of substances or matter and how to make practical use of them is the essence of chemistry, whether the study takes place in a formal laboratory or not. The effectiveness of folk medicines used for centuries by traditional Africans and African-American practitioners throughout the world is recognized today.
Even before they were exposed to western science and medicine, many African cultures used natural versions of aspirin, kaolin (an effective cure for diarrhea), and herbal treatments for skin infections. African doctors had discovered effective herbal remedies for several diseases; the Zulu alone had found medicinal application from over 700 plants. African captives brought their scientific knowledge with them to America, and during the slavery period, several emerged as proficient in healing and medicine.
The abolition of slavery allowed African-Americans to begin earning mainstream respect for their work in the laboratories of modern science. In the late 19th century, George Washington Carver emerged as a pioneer in agricultural research. He found dozens of uses for chemicals he extracted from peanuts and potatoes. His research led to the development of hundreds of products, including ink, shampoo, and peanut butter. He later became a vocal supporter of growing peanuts as a source of protein. During the 29th century, several African-American chemists have made important offerings in physical, organic, nuclear, and analytical chemistry.
Lloyd A. Hall, president of the Griffith Chemical Company, discovered important food preservatives. Percy L. Julian developed a way to remove and prepare soybean products as cortisone, to treat arthritis, and an extract used in the treatment of glaucoma. Julian registered more than 130 chemical patents during the course of his career.
Dr. Jane Wright
Other African-American chemist includes Jane Wright, (shown) former director of the Cancer Research Foundation, who formulated mithramycin, a drug that has proved promising in fighting cancer. William A. Lester Jr., a theoretical chemist who did research on the troubles of high-velocity molecular collisions, was chosen to manage the National Resource for Computation in Chemistry. James A. Harris helped to discover Rutherfordium (atomic number 104) and Hafnium (atomic number 105).
Since 1916, when St. Elmo Brady became the first African-American to earn a Ph.D. in chemistry, Blacks have played an increasingly important role in laboratories and lecture halls. Current data indicates that African-Americans comprise nearly 4 percent of Ph.D. students in chemistry.
From George W. Carver,
to Ralph G. Gardner, to Dr. Shirley Jackson, to Mark Dean the number of Black chemists and scientist is increasing.